Preventing Coronary Artery Disease with Bioidentical Hormones

bioidentical flip flopPreventing Coronary Artery Disease with Bioidentical Hormones

by Jeffrey Dach MD

The “Flip Flop” on Estrogen and Heart Disease

Medical science has done a “Flip-Flop” on estrogen and coronary heart disease.  Prior to 2003,  Forty observational studies showed that post-menopausal hormone replacement protected women from coronary artery disease and heart attacks.  Left image  “Flip Flop” courtesy of Public Affairs Council.

Unethical to Deny Hormone Replacement

Prior to 2003, it was unethical to deny post menopausal women their hormone replacement.  This was openly stated by three mainstream medical groups in their published guidelines.   Doctors really believed that hormone replacement with estrogen bestowed protection from coronary heart disease.

The FLIP FLOP in 2002

coronary_angiogram_animated_bioidenticalThe “Flip Flop” happened in 2002 after publication of the Women’s Health Initiative study (WHI) which showed increased heart disease in the Prempro Treated Group.  Upon realizing this, the study was immediately terminated early. (17) The failure of the WHI study to show cardiac benefit in Prem-Pro users was an utter disappointment. (22)  The question is : “Why did the WHI study fail to show cardiac benefit?” Here is the answer:

The Wrong Hormones and the Wrong Age Group

The WHI First-Arm, and earlier randomized controlled trials in the 1990’s used a non-bioidentical synthetic “progestin” called medroxyprogesterone. This is the wrong hormone. These studies also used the wrong age group, the  60-70 year age group beyond the menopausal transition. They waited too long.

Dr Barrett-Conner 2003 – Estrogen is a Failure !!!

In a 2003 publication, Dr Barrett-Conner lamented the failure of estrogen to prevent coronary artery disease (CHD) in post-menopausal women. (1): Her dramatic quote below:

“The failure to find cardioprotective effects in any of the several clinical trials with CHD outcomes offers little hope that postmenopausal HT (Hormone Replacement) will prevent heart disease. The results, unexpected and unwelcome, are nonetheless definitive and are likely to extend beyond the studied treatment regimens.”

Of course, the above comment by Dr. Barrett-Conner is completely wrong, as you will see below.

bioidentical flip flop2011 – Reverse the Flip-Flop, Estrogen Is Indeed Cardio-Protective

Quite to the contrary,  a later study showed Dr Conner was completely wrong.  The eleven year follow-up of the Second Arm (Premarin-only) of the WHI (Women’s Health Initiative), showed that estrogen reduces mortality from heart disease, reduces heart attacks and reduces all cause mortality (see data below) (15,16)  This was published in JAMA in 2011.(15,16)

Protection for 50-60 Year Age Group

However, only the 50-60 year age group was protected by Hormone Replacement.  Older age groups were not protected.  In addition, cardio protection was lost in those using PremPro containing a synthetic progestin, (medroxyprogesterone).

Here is the DATA from the 11 year follow up JAMA WHI publication (15)  Notice the numbers in RED which means reduced incidence.

This is the Second Arm Study which used Premarin Alone in women after hysterectomy.

Events by Group
(years of age) Coronary Artery Disease
CHD Hazard Ratio
50-59 yrs…………0.59
60-69 yrs…………1.0
70-79 yrs…………1.06

Total MI Hazard Ratio
(Myocardial Infarction)
50-59 yrs…………0.54
60-69 yrs…………1.05
70-79 yrs…………1.23

All-Cause Mortality Hazard Ratio
50-59 yrs…………0.73
60-69 yrs…………1.04
70-79 yrs…………1.12

Invasive Breast Cancer Hazard Ratio
50-59 yrs…………0.80
60-69 yrs…………0.73
70-79 yrs…………0.81

Notice that for the “younger” age group (age 50-60 yrs), Hormone Replacement with Premarin-alone provided an astounding 41% reduction in coronary artery disease, 46% reduction in myocardial infarctions, and 27 % reduction in all cause mortality. In addition, there is a 20-30% reduction in breast cancer. When one lumps all the age groups together, the benefit is NULL. However, when one looks at the 50-60 age group, starting hormone replacement immediately after hormone decline of menopause, the benefits are striking.

Preventing a Degenerative Disease Doesn’t Work if You Already Have It

The explanation for the Flip-Flop is actually quite simple. An intervention to prevent degenerative disease works before you develop the degenerative disease.  Once the degenerative disease develops, it is too late to prevent it.  You have waited too long, and the preventive measure is now ineffective. This is true for coronary artery disease. This explains why estrogen is effective in preventing atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in the 50-60 year age group, if started right away at time of menopause.  This also explains why HRT (hormone replacement therapy) is ineffective ten or twenty years after menopause, after coronary artery disease has time to develop.

Coronary_artery_bypass_surgery_bioidentical Left image: Surgeons performing cardiac bypass operation on patient with advanced coronary artery disease, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

23 RCT’s Re-Examined – Behold a Benefit for Younger Post-Menopause

When one goes back to the RCT’s (randomized controlled trials) of the 1990’s that failed to show  cardiovascular benefit for estrogen, and re-examine the data set for the younger post-menopausal age group, there is a 30-40% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. (21) This was confirmed in a 2006 meta-analysis of 23 RCT’s (randomized controlled trials) of hormone replacement by Dr. Salpeter revealing a 30-40% decrease in CV risk in young post-menopausal women.(21)

Don’t Wait to Start Hormone Replacement After Menopause

The take home message for a women entering menopause is : “Don’t Wait” to start bioidentical hormone replacement immediately upon onset of menopausal symptoms.

“Many people ask, how safe is it “really”, to do hormone replacement?  Yet, the real question is, How safe is it NOT TO DO hormone replacement? ”  Quote courtesy of Dr Sangeeta Pati.

Window of Opportunity” for Hormonal Replacement.

The obvious answer is that menopausal estrogen deficiency menopause leads to chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, cognitive dysfunction, and coronary artery disease.

Coronary_Calcium_Score_CAT_ScanTwo Coronary Calcium Score Studies

Coronary Artery Calcium Score has emerged over the last decade as a highly accurate marker for coronary artery disease risk. Two coronary calcium score studies from the WHI study showed striking benefits for post menopausal women in the Premarin-Alone users, but not in the Premarin-Pregestin (Prem-Pro) combination users.

Coronary Calcium Studies

Dr JoAnn Manson’s study measured calcium score at the end of the 8.7 year observation period for “Younger” women in the 50-59 age group. (18) The women using Premarin-alone had a 60% lower calcium score compared to placebo users.

Here is Dr. JoAnn Manson’s quote from the New England Journal of Medicine 2005:

vivelle-dot-estrogen_patch_bioidentical_estradiol“These findings, in conjunction with the suggestion of a reduced risk of clinical coronary events among women treated with conjugated equine estrogens in this age group, are consistent with previous evidence from laboratory, animal, and observational studies.”

Left image: Photo of Vivelle Dot by Novartis, containing FDA approved Bioidentical Estradiol courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

A second study was published in 2005 Journal of Women’s Health by Dr. Matthew Budoff. This study performed two consecutive calcium scores one year apart examining progression of calcium score. For the Premarin-alone treated women, the study showed an increase of only 9%, compared to 22% for non-users. The Premarin-alone users had a 63% reduction in progression of calcification compared to non-users.  Premarin-Progestin combination users had a 24% annual increase, about the same as non-users (19). A 2007 study in the American Journal of Cardiology by Dr Becker in Germany showed the same findings, that the Premarin-Progestin combination failed to reduce progression of calcium score compared to non-hormone users.

How Does Estrogen Prevent Coronary Artery Disease ?
Anti-Inflammatory and Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction

An excellent 2009 article by Dr. Bechlioulis reviews the benefits of estrogen in preventing endothelial dysfunction, the initiating step in atherosclerosis. (20) Flow mediated dilatation( FMD) of the brachial artery is a handy tool to evaluate endothelial dysfunction.  Studies using FMD show  endothelial dysfunction in post menopausal women, women with premature menopause, and surgically induced menopause, all of whom have estrogen deficiency. (20)

Estrogen is Anti-Inflammatory – Basic Science Studies

A number of basic science studies in animals and humans show that estrogen has a profound anti-inflammatory effect, and this explains much of the cardio-protection.(23-28, 31)

Carotid-Angio-StenosisCarotid plaque study from Italy – Less inflammation in the Plaque

An elegant study from Italy examined inflammation in carotid artery plaque material after surgical removal in women using hormone replacement compared to non-users.(30)  The authors found considerable reduction of inflammatory cells and inflammatory markers in the plaque material in women using hormone replacement. (30)

Estrogen Up-Regulates EPC’s

The Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) has been recognized as an important component of cardio-protection, and estrogen upregulates the EPC’s, conferring protection post-myocardial infarction in a mouse model. The administration of estrogen stimulates faster recovery after ischemic injury by increasing EPC’s and neo-angiogenisis (29)

Estradiol Metabolite Prevents Atherosclerosis

Dr Bourghardt reported in Endocrinology 2007 that a metabolite of estradiol called 2-methoxyestradiol reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (32) The author commented,

”The anti-atherogenic activity of an estradiol metabolite lacking estrogen receptor activating capacity may argue that trials on cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy should use estradiol rather than other estrogens.” (32)

This is another reason to offer bio-identical estradiol rather than Premarin as the preferred hormone (HRT).

Howard Hodis and Wendy Mack (8,9,10)

The Cardio-Protection of Estrogen is best described by Drs. Howard Hodis and Wendy Mack in a series of articles from 2008 to 2011 which points out that for women in the 50-60 year age group, (shortly after the onset of menopausal hormone decline), all of the Randomized Controlled Trials are in agreement with observational and animal studies. These clearly show a significant cardio-protective effect of estrogen replacement of about 40-50%.(8,8A,8B,9,10).

Drs Hodis and Mack point out that this age group and results are similar to all the preceding observational (1) and animal studies (13, 13A,13b). This 50-60 age group is called the “Window of Opportunity” for Hormonal Replacement.

This makes sense when considering that hormonal decline of natural or surgically-induced menopause is associated with degenerative diseases such as coronary artery disease, osteoporosis , osteoarthritis , cognitive decline, all of which are associated with increased mortality rate (11,12,12A,12b_).

Estrogen Prevents Onset of Degenerative Disease

If one considers menopause as onset of degenerative disease, then this explains why hormone replacement is protective in the early post-menopausal time period, and is ineffective 10 to 15 years after menopause. This also explains why Premarin is dramatically successful for reducing heart disease risk in the 50-60 age group, and ineffective for the over 60 age group in the 11 year follow data for the WHI second arm.(15,16)

Avoid Synthetic Monster Hormones

Prempro Jeffrey Dach MDIn addition, it is now clear that women must avoid synthetic hormones, such as Medroxyprogesterone, a “progestin” in the Prem-Pro Pill (Provera). This synthetic monster hormone causes heart disease, and opposes the cardio-protective effects of Estrogen.(19) This “Progestin”, medroxyprogesterone, was also found to increase breast cancer risk in numerous studies. It is now crystal clear that the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone are the preferred hormone choice.  Use bioidentical progesterone instead, which is widely available and inexpensive.

Avoid Blood Clots with Trans-Dermal Estrogen

A 2010 report by Dr. Leonard Speroff in Climacteric points out that topical estrogen is preferred over the pill form of estrogen (such as Premarin). The transdermal route is not associated with increased blood clots since it avoids first pass through the liver.(13) This has been confirmed by others.

Improved Bone Density Report (14)

A study using Hormone Replacement reported a 5% increase in bone density over 3.5 years. This study also used calcium and vitamin D (14). The WHI data also showed improved bone health with less hip fracture rates in women on hormone replacement.

Lipitor-Statin Anti-Cholesterol Drug to Prevent Heart Disease in Women?

lipitor_business_week_jeffrey_dachMany post-menopausal women come to my office for their first visit on Lipitor, Crestor, Baychol or some other statin anti-cholesterol drug intended to prevent heart disease. In addition, these women are all “terrorized” by the drug marketing television campaigns, and are all worried and obsessed that the cholesterol is too high. The first thing they ask me is, “what is my cholesterol”?. The cardiologists and primary docs just go along with the ruse and hand out Lipitor to women quite freely. Statin drugs come with horrendous adverse side effects that I see every day in my office. To give such a drug treatment without any known benefit to out-weigh the adverse effect is a form of mistreatment and abuse which must be halted.

Adverse Effects of Statin Drugs

Adverse effects of statin drugs are nicely summarized in this 2008 article by Beatrice Golomb MD in the American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 2008. The statin drugs are mitochondrial toxins and deplete Co-Enzyme Q10 levels, causing neuropathy, myopathy, congestive heart failure, transient global amnesia, erectile dysfunction, dementia and blood sugar elevation, etc.

No Benefit For Women with Statin Drugs

The reality is that statin drugs do not reduce mortality from heart disease in women, nor do they reduce all cause mortality. This data is summarized nicely in articles by Dr. Dr. Judith Walsh in JAMA 2004, by Dr. Petretta 2010 Int Journal of Cardiology, and Dr Ray 2010 Archives of Int Med (38,38b,39).

Lipid Lowering with Statin Drugs Ill-Advised According to Drs. Hodis and Mack (8):

“Lipid-lowering therapy, predominantly with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin drugs) is the mainstay for the primary prevention of CHD in women. The cumulated data however, do not provide convincing evidence for the significant reduction of CHD with lipid-lowering therapy relative to placebo when used for primary prevention of CHD in women and there is no evidence that such therapy reduces overall mortality. ” End Quote Drs Hodis and Mack 2011 (8)

The Short History of Women’s Hormone Replacement and Heart Disease

1920–1939: Estradiol synthesized (1938)

1940–1949: Premarin introduced (1942)

1983-1987 : Observational Studies on RT and Heart Disease. The first observational studies of the benefits of RT (hormone replacement) were published by Trudy Bush in 1983 and 1987 showing reduction in cardiovascular disease and total mortality in hormone users. (2,3)

199150% Reduction in Mortality from Heart Disease- 11 studies. In 1991, Dr Conner reported that 11 studies showed a 50% reduction in mortality from heart disease for post-menopausal women using estrogen alone (without a progestin).(4) She writes: “Most, but not all, studies of hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women show around a 50% reduction in risk of a coronary event in women using unopposed oral estrogen.”(4)

1992 Landmark Meta-Analysis- Guidelines Offer Estrogen to Prevent Heart Disease. In 1992 Dr Deborah Grady publishes a landmark meta-analysis in the Annals of Internal Medicine, reviewing the medical literature since 1970 showing post-menopausal estrogen replacement reduces risk of heart disease in women, and reduces fracture risk as well. (5)

1992- Three Medical Organizations Endorse Estrogen Therapy to Prevent Heart Disease. Also in 1992, three medical organizations , the American College of Physicians, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Heart Association proposed guidelines that all postmenopausal women should be offered estrogen hormone replacement to prevent heart disease.(5,6,7)

1995–1999 PremPro, the first combination Hormone Replacement pill is introduced, HERS study (1998) using Prempro reports early increased heart disease risk.

2002–2003 WHI (First Arm-Using Prempro) reports increased heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer, WHI continues unopposed estrogen arm (Premarin alone Second Arm), FDA requires black box warning for all postmenopausal estrogens with or without progestin.

2003 Dr Barrett – Connor. In 2003, Dr Barrett Conner wrote an article in JCEM summarizing the previous three decades of research on estrogen and heart disease (1). In her article, she observes:

“Women have lower risk of heart disease than men of comparable age, with roughly twice the mortality for males compared to females.” (1)

Observations suggesting estrogen is cardio-protection for women (1):
a) Heart disease is uncommon in women before the age of menopause,
b) Heart disease is more common in women who have a premature natural menopause,
c) Heart disease is more common in young women who have had both ovaries removed, and
d) Heart disease is less common in women who take hormone therapy (HT) after menopause.

2004 – WHI Second Arm published in JAMA showing less breast cancer and less heart disease in Hormone Users (Premarin only) (15)

2011 – WHI Second Arm 11 year follow up data published showing Coronary artery disease reduced by half in “younger” 50-60 yr. women using Premarin alone without a progestin.(15,16)

Conclusion – Don’t Wait:

The cardio-protective benefits of estrogen replacement are greatest at the initiation of menopause, and health benefits diminish after the many years in which degenerative disease is allowed to progress. The conclusion is:  DON’T WAIT to start Hormone Replacement. The health benefits are greatest when starting hormone replacement at the initiation of menopause.(73-77)

Update 2016: Two Finnish Studies show same benefits for Estradiol based HRT with reduction of coronary artery and breast cancer risks similar to WHI Second ARM which used Premarin (horse estrogen). (74,75)

Update: see this 2012 study in BMJ: Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial.BMJ 2012; 345.  Here are the Conclusions: “After 10 years of randomised treatment, women receiving hormone replacement therapy early after menopause had a significantly reduced risk of mortality, heart failure, or myocardial infarction, without any apparent increase in risk of cancer, venous thromboembolism, or stroke.”

Update 2016: Practical Tips on Implementing HRT : practical-implementation-tips-hormone-replacement-therapy-claire-bellone-and-nick-panay-2016

“Most women will self-select the prescription that offers the lowest risks, whatever their current health status. This is often transdermal oestrogen with natural progesterone.”

Articles with Related Content:

The Safety of Bioidentical Hormones

Bioidentical Hormones Prevent and Reverse Osteoarthritis

The Importance of BioIdentical Hormones

Bioidentical Hormones Reverse Aging New Harvard Study

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
954-792-4663

Links and References

1) An Epidemiologist Looks at Hormones and Heart Disease in Women
by Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, M.D., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism September 1, 2003 vol. 88 no. 9 4031-4042

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0607, La Jolla, California 92093-0607.  The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism September 1, 2003 vol. 88 no. 9 4031-4042

2) Bush TL, Cowan LD, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui MH, Karon JM, Wallace RB, Tyroler HA, Rifkind BM 1983 . Estrogen use and all-cause mortality. Preliminary results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-Up Study.  JAMA 249:903–906

3) Cardiovascular mortality and noncontraceptive use of estrogen in women: results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-up Study. by TRUDY L. BUSH, PH.D., M.H.S., ELIZABETH BARRETT-CONNOR, M.D. Circulation 75, No. 6, 1102-1109, 1987.

4) Barrett-Connor E, Bush TL 1991 Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 265:1861–1867  “Most, but not all, studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women show around a 50% reduction in risk of a coronary event in women using unopposed oral estrogen.”

5) http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/gerstman/misc/Grady1992.pdf
Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, Fox CS, Black D, Ettinger B, Ernster VL, Cummings SR 1992  Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women.
Ann Intern Med 117:1016–1037

6) 1992 Guidelines for counseling postmenopausal women about preventive hormone therapy.. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 117:1038–1041

7)  guidelines-for-counseling-women-on-the-management-of-menopause-2000 Guidelines for Counseling Women on the Management of
Menopause By the Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health Expert Panel on Menopause Counseling. Produced in Collaboration with The National Committee for Quality Assurance, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and The North American Menopause Society February 2000

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8) Hodis, Howard N., and Wendy J. Mack. “A “window of opportunity:” the reduction of coronary heart disease and total mortality with menopausal therapies is age-and time-dependent.” Brain research 1379 (2011): 244-252. Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

The totality of data indicates that the “window of opportunity” for reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) and overall mortality is initiation of hormone therapy (HT) within 6 years of menopause and/or before 60 years of age.  Timing in the initiation of hormone replacement before tissue damage due to aging becomes too extensive appears to be the key for successful prevention and amelioration of any further damage (Hodis and Mack, 2007a)

8A)   Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 September; 51(3): 564–580.
Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease in Perspective
Howard N. Hodis, M.D. Harry J. Bauer and Dorothy Bauer Rawlins Professor of Cardiology, Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Professor of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Director, Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSC 132, Los Angeles, CA 90033,

The totality of data indicate that the window of opportunity for reducing mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) is initiation of hormone therapy (HT) within 6 years of menopause and/or by 60 years of age and continued for 6 years or more. Additionally, the risks of HT are rare (<1/1,000) especially in younger postmenopausal women and comparable to other primary prevention therapies. In fact, as randomized controlled trial results accumulate, the more they look like the consistent observational data that young postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms who use HT for long periods of time have lower rates of mortality and CHD than comparable postmenopausal women who do not use HT.

8) In Perspective: Estrogen Therapy Safely and Effectively Reduces Total Mortality and Coronary Heart Disease in Recently Menopausal Women by Howard N. Hodis, MD Wendy J. Mack, PhD. Menopause Manag. 2008 Mar; 17(2): 27–32.

9)  Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 September; 51(3): 564–580.
Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease in Perspective
Howard N. Hodis, M.D. Harry J. Bauer and Dorothy Bauer Rawlins Professor of Cardiology, Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Professor of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Director, Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSC 132, Los Angeles, CA 90033,

The totality of data indicate that the window of opportunity for reducing mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) is initiation of hormone therapy (HT) within 6 years of menopause and/or by 60 years of age and continued for 6 years or more. Additionally, the risks of HT are rare (<1/1,000) especially in younger postmenopausal women and comparable to other primary prevention therapies. In fact, as randomized controlled trial results accumulate, the more they look like the consistent observational data that young postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms who use HT for long periods of time have lower rates of mortality and CHD than comparable postmenopausal women who do not use HT.

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Early Menopause

11)  The impact of early menopause on risk of coronary artery disease
(PREmature Coronary Artery Disease In Women – PRECADIW case-control study)
Barbara Lubiszewska et al.Department of Coronary Heart Disease, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology February 2012 vol. 19 no. 1 95-101

Conclusions: We have shown that smoking and early postmenopausal stage (=3years) are the most important determinants of premature CAD followed by parental CVD, diabetes and hypertension.

Premature Ovarian Failure

12)  Premature ovarian failure: long-term sequelae.  Kate Maclaran Etienne Horner† and Nick Panay *Department of Gynaecology, Queen Charlotte’s and Chelsea Hospital, London, UK Menopause Int March 2010 vol. 16 no. 1 38-41

Life-expectancy: POF has been associated with a 50% higher mortality than women with menopause at age 52–55.12

Hysterectomy Surgical Menopause and Increased Heart Disease

12A) Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;113(5):1027-37. Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy and long-term health outcomes in the nurses’ health study. Parker WH et al.

12B) Menopause. 2009 Jan–Feb; 16(1): 15–23. Increased cardiovascular mortality following early bilateral oophorectomy. Cathleen M. Rivera, MD et al.

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Monkey Studies

13)   Estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression.  Clarkson TB. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun;14(3 Pt 1):373-84.Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC

Both monkeys and women with premenopausal estrogen deficiency develop premature atherosclerosis, an effect that can be prevented in both species by estrogen-containing oral contraceptives.

PERIMENOPAUSAL/EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL YEARS: During this stage, there are robust estrogen benefits. Monkeys given estrogens immediately after surgical menopause have a 70% inhibition in coronary atherosclerosis progression.

Monkey Model

13A) Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from a Monkey Model of Postmenopausal Women  J. Koudy Williams and Irma Suparto. ILAR J. 2004;45(2):139-46.

Initiation of ERT with No Pre-existing Atherosclerosis

In two separate studies, Clarkson and colleagues (1998) and Adams and coworkers (1997) initiated ERT (CEE given in the diet at the monkey equivalent of 0.625 mg/day) immediately after ovariectomy in monkeys with no pre-existing atherosclerosis. In both of these studies (Figure 2), CEE inhibited the very early progression of atherosclerosis by about 70% compared with untreated controls.

Initiation of CEE with Pre-existing Atherosclerosis

In a more recent study, Clarkson and colleagues (2001) initiated CEE treatment immediately after ovariectomy in monkeys with pre-existing atherosclerosis. CEE inhibited further development of coronary artery atherosclerosis, but only by about 50% (compared with untreated controls, Figure 3). This treatment regimen would be equivalent to treating a postmenopausal woman with average amounts of pre-existing coronary artery atherosclerosis immediately after the onset of menopause.

This population is still different from the study populations used in the HERS, ERA (Estrogen/ Progestin Replacement and Atherosclerosis Trial; Herrington et al. 2000), and WHI trials, which did not receive RT until several years after the onset of menopause.

MONKEYS CEE reduced atheroclerosis by 72%, but not MPA

13) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Jan;17(1):217-21.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes inhibitory effects of conjugated equine estrogens on coronary artery atherosclerosis.  Adams MR, Register TC, Golden DL, Wagner JD, Williams JK. Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040, USA.

Although estrogen replacement therapy is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and reduced extent of coronary artery atherosclerosis, the effects of combined (estrogen plus progestin) hormone-replacement therapy are uncertain. Some observational data indicate that users of combined hormone replacement consisting of continuously administered oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and oral sequentially administered (7 to 14 days per month) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) experience a reduction in risk similar to that of users of CEE alone.

However, the effects of combined, continuously administered CEE plus MPA (a prescribing pattern that has gained favor) on the risk of coronary heart disease or atherosclerosis are not known. We studied the effects of CEE (monkey equivalent of 0.625 mg/d) and MPA (monkey equivalent of 2.5 mg/d), administered separately or in combination, on the extent of coronary artery atherosclerosis (average plaque size) in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys fed atherogenic diets and treated with these hormones for 30 months. Treatment with CEE alone resulted in atherosclerosis extent that was reduced 72% relative to untreated (estrogen-deficient) controls (P < .004).

Atherosclerosis extent in animals treated with CEE plus MPA or MPA alone did not differ from that of untreated controls.

Although the mechanism(s) remains unclear, we conclude that oral CEE inhibits the initiation and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis and that continuously administered oral MPA antagonizes this atheroprotective effect.

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Transdermal Does Not Cause Blood Clots

14)  Climacteric. 2010 Oct;13(5):429-32. Transdermal hormone therapy and the risk of stroke and venous thrombosis. Speroff L. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Recent case-control and cohort studies have indicated that the transdermal administration of postmenopausal estrogen therapy is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, specifically stroke and venous thrombosis. These studies have prompted the clinical promotion of transdermal treatment as ‘safer’. There are reasons, however, to be cautious regarding postmenopausal transdermal hormone therapy, especially in regard to stroke. Previous reports linking postmenopausal estrogen therapy and the risk of stroke have not yielded consistent results, finding it difficult to adjust for all confounding factors, including compliance with treatment. Age of the population studies may be a critical issue. Notably, the risk of stroke with oral estrogen was not increased in the Women’s Health Initiative when women with prior cardiovascular disease or those older than 60 years were excluded. There does appear to be a dose-response relationship with stroke, similar to that observed with estrogen-progestin contraceptives, and this may be a problem when studying standard doses of transdermal treatment, in that many women receiving transdermal estrogen display lower estrogen blood levels when compared with oral treatment. Clinicians should administer low doses of estrogen to women with risk factors for stroke, and the transdermal route of administration is indicated for women at high risk for venous thrombosis and for older postmenopausal women, especially for women with stroke risk factors. In a recent study, Renoux and colleagues from McGill University in Montreal performed a nested case-control study deriving the data from a cohort of women in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD).

Current use of oral and transdermal hormone therapy, based on recorded prescriptions, was compared to no use in 15 710 cases and 59 958 controls. The adjusted rate ratio (RR) for stroke for current use of transdermal estrogens, with or without a progestin, was not increased (RR 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.20) compared with a significant increase associated with oral estrogen, with or without a progestin (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.15-1.42). This would amount to an attributal risk of 0.8 additional strokes per 1000 women per year. There was an indication of a dose-response relationship; a significant increase in risk was observed with transdermal estrogen doses greater than 50 microg.

The case-control study by Renoux and colleagues is the first major analysis to compare transdermal and oral hormone therapy and conclude that, compared with an increased risk of stroke with oral therapy, there was no increased risk with transdermal treatment at a dose of 50 microg or less.

This report is about as strong an observational study as can be achieved.

Large numbers of cases (15 710) and controls (59 958) were available for analysis using the well-known UK GPRD. The use of this computerized database precludes selection bias by the investigators and recall bias by the women in the study. The results support the growing conventional wisdom that transdermal therapy at standard doses is free of the cardiovascular risks associated with oral therapy.
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15)  JAMA. 2011;305(13):1305-1314.  Health Outcomes After Stopping Conjugated Equine Estrogens Among Postmenopausal Women With Prior Hysterectomy A Randomized Controlled Trial –  Andrea Z. LaCroix, PhD; Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, PhD;  JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH; for the WHI Investigators

Context The Women’s Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial was stopped early after a mean of 7.1 years of follow-up because of an increased risk of stroke and little likelihood of altering the balance of risk to benefit by the planned trial termination date. Postintervention health outcomes have not been reported.

Objective To examine health outcomes associated with randomization to treatment with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) among women with prior hysterectomy after a mean of 10.7 years of follow-up through August 2009.

Design, Setting, and Participants The intervention phase was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of 0.625 mg/d of CEE compared with placebo in 10 739 US postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years with prior hysterectomy. Follow-up continued after the planned trial completion date among 7645 surviving participants (78%) who provided written consent.

Main Outcome Measures The primary outcomes were coronary heart disease (CHD) and invasive breast cancer. A global index of risks and benefits included these primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death.

Results The postintervention risk (annualized rate) for CHD among women assigned to CEE was 0.64% compared with 0.67% in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.25), 0.26% vs 0.34%, respectively, for breast cancer (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.51-1.09), and 1.47% vs 1.48%, respectively, for total mortality (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84-1.18). The risk of stroke was no longer elevated during the postintervention follow-up period and was 0.36% among women receiving CEE compared with 0.41% in the placebo group (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.64-1.24), the risk of deep vein thrombosis was lower at 0.17% vs 0.27%, respectively (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.98), and the risk of hip fracture did not differ significantly and was 0.36% vs 0.28%, respectively (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.88-1.82). Over the entire follow-up, lower breast cancer incidence in the CEE group persisted and was 0.27% compared with 0.35% in the placebo group (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.95).

Health outcomes were more favorable for younger compared with older women for CHD (P = .05 for interaction), total myocardial infarction (P = .007 for interaction), colorectal cancer (P = .04 for interaction), total mortality (P = .04 for interaction), and global index of chronic diseases (P = .009 for interaction).

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11 year follow up of the WHI

16)  Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar 6.  Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Anderson GL, Chlebowski RT, Aragaki AK, Kuller LH, Manson JE, Gass M, Bluhm E, Connelly S, Hubbell FA, Lane D, Martin L, Ockene J, Rohan T, Schenken R, Wactawski-Wende J.  Source Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences, Seattle, WA, USA.

By contrast with many observational studies, women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial who were randomly allocated to receive oestrogen alone had a lower incidence of invasive breast cancer than did those who received placebo. We aimed to assess the influence of oestrogen use on longer term breast cancer incidence and mortality in extended follow-up of this cohort.

METHODS:Between 1993 and 1998, the WHI enrolled 10,739 postmenopausal women from 40 US clinical centres into a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Women aged 50-79 years who had undergone hysterectomy and had expected 3-year survival and mammography clearance were randomly allocated by a computerised, permuted block algorithm, stratified by age group and centre, to receive oral conjugated equine oestrogen (0·625 mg per day; n=5310) or matched placebo (n=5429). The trial intervention was terminated early on Feb 29, 2004, because of an adverse effect on stroke. Follow-up continued until planned termination (March 31, 2005). Consent was sought for extended surveillance from the 9786 living participants in active follow-up, of whom 7645 agreed. Using data from this extended follow-up (to Aug 14, 2009), we assessed long-term effects of oestrogen use on invasive breast cancer incidence, tumour characteristics, and mortality. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00000611.

FINDINGS:

After a median follow-up of 11·8 years (IQR 9·1-12·9), the use of oestrogen for a median of 5·9 years (2·5-7·3) was associated with lower incidence of invasive breast cancer (151 cases, 0·27% per year) compared with placebo (199 cases, 0·35% per year; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·62-0·95; p=0·02) with no difference (p=0·76) between intervention phase (0·79, 0·61-1·02) and post-intervention phase effects (0·75, 0·51-1·09). In subgroup analyses, we noted breast cancer risk reduction with oestrogen use was concentrated in women without benign breast disease (p=0·01) or a family history of breast cancer (p=0·02). In the oestrogen group, fewer women died from breast cancer (six deaths, 0·009% per year) compared with controls (16 deaths, 0·024% per year; HR 0·37, 95% CI 0·13-0·91; p=0·03). Fewer women in the oestrogen group died from any cause after a breast cancer diagnosis (30 deaths, 0·046% per year) than did controls (50 deaths, 0·076%; HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·39-0·97; p=0·04).

INTERPRETATION:

Our findings provide reassurance for women with hysterectomy seeking relief of climacteric symptoms in terms of the effects of oestrogen use for about 5 years on breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, our data do not support use of oestrogen for breast cancer risk reduction because any noted benefit probably does not apply to populations at increased risk of such cancer.

17)  JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.
Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J; Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators.

Coronary Calcium Studies

JoAnn Manson

18)  Estrogen Therapy and Coronary-Artery Calcification by JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., et al.  for the WHI and WHI-CACS Investigators. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:2591-2602June 21, 2007

The WHI-CACS assessed the post-trial burden of calcified atheroma in the coronary arteries in women 50 to 59 years old at the time of randomization in the WHI trial of conjugated equine estrogens. An average of 8.7 years after randomization, women receiving estrogen had a lower prevalence and quantity of coronary-artery calcium than those receiving placebo, with odds ratios for high levels of coronary-artery calcium generally 30 to 40% lower in intention-to-treat analyses and 60% lower in analyses among women with at least 80% adherence to the study medication for at least 5 years. The results remained robust and significant in analyses that involved diverse analytic approaches. These findings, in conjunction with the suggestion of a reduced risk of clinical coronary events among women treated with conjugated equine estrogens in this age group,5 are consistent with previous evidence from laboratory, animal, and observational studies.2,3,6

Matthew Budoff –

19)  J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Jun;14(5):410-7.
Effects of hormone replacement on progression of coronary calcium as measured by electron beam tomography. by Matthew Budoff et al. Division of Cardiology, Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, California

The recent Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) results have demonstrated that combined estrogen plus progestin imparts a small but significant increase in cardiovascular risk and breast cancer among asymptomatic women. However, the effect and potential benefit of unopposed estrogen is not as clear. We sought to evaluate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women using no hormone replacement therapy (RT), combined therapy, and estrogen alone in an observational study.
METHODS:

Postmenopausal women without symptoms or known coronary heart disease (CHD) were evaluated at our center for follow-up of coronary calcification. Patients were physician referred and underwent two consecutive electron beam tomography scans at least 1 year apart. All women fitting the study criteria were asked to participate, and those who consented were included. Demographic data, risk factors for CHD, RT, and other medication use were collected by interview.
RESULTS:

The study included 177 asymptomatic women.

Calcium progression was 14.6%+/-21% in women taking any hormone therapy (n=97). Annual calcium progression rates in nonusers (n=80) was 22.3%+/-32%.

Relative to the nonuser group, RT treatment inhibited the progression of atherosclerosis by 35% (p=0.01). This effect was independent of age, risk, cardiovascular factors, statin use, or baseline CAC score.

Thirty-five of the 97 women (36%) were taking estrogen plus progestin, with an annual increase in calcium scores of 24%+/-23%, similar to the non-RT women (22%).

Those women taking estrogen replacement only (n=62) was 63% lower (9%+/-22%).

CONCLUSIONS:

This is an observational study, and the results are in accordance with the recently published WHI study, demonstrating no benefit of estrogen plus progestin compared with no therapy. However, women taking unopposed estrogen demonstrated a significant slowing of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with non-RT and estrogen plus progestin.

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Mechanisms- Endothelial Dysfunction

20) http://www.hellenicjcardiol.org/archive/full_text/2009/4/2009_4_303.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622500
Hellenic J Cardiol. 2009 Jul-Aug;50(4):303-15.
Menopause and hormone therapy: from vascular endothelial function to cardiovascular disease. Bechlioulis A, Naka KK, Papanikolaou O, Kontostolis E, Kalantaridou SN, Michalis LK.
Source Michaelidion Cardiac Centre, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

23 RCT’s Show Benefit for Younger post menopause

21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1484709/
J Gen Intern Med. 2006 April; 21(4): 363–366. BRIEF REPORT: Coronary Heart Disease Events Associated with Hormone Therapy in Younger and Older Women , A Meta-Analysis
Shelley R Salpeter, MD,1,2,3 Judith ME Walsh, MD, MPH,4 Elizabeth Greyber, MD,1 and Edwin E Salpeter, PhD5

RESULTS -The literature search identified 23 trials that met inclusion criteria (Appendices 1 and 2).2,3,8–29 Additional information on the WHI trial was published separately.30

The analysis included 39,049 participants, with a mean trial duration of 4.9±1.7 years (range 0.5 to 10 years). The dropout rate was approximately 12.0% in the treatment group and 10.8% in the control group.

For all ages, there was no effect of HT on CHD events (OR 0.99 [confidence interval (CI), 0.88 to 1.11]).

In the younger group, HT reduced CHD events by 32% (OR 0.68 [CI, 0.48 to 0.96; Fig. 1]). When trials with only younger women were evaluated, a similar reduction in events was found (OR 0.7 [CI, 0.49 to 1.0]).

The OR for CHD events in the older group was 1.03 (CI, 0.91 to 1.16; Fig. 2). Trials with only older women showed similar results (OR 1.08 [CI, 0.91 to 1.27]). When the results of the 2 age groups were compared with each other, HT was associated with significantly lower CHD events in younger women compared with older women (OR 0.66 [CI, 0.46 to 0.95]).

HERS-Study failure to show benefit because they used Prem-Pro and average age was 67 yrs.

22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12090862
JAMA. 2002 Jul 3;288(1):49-57.
Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II).
Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, Blumenthal R, Davidson M, Hlatky M, Hsia J, Hulley S, Herd A, Khan S, Newby LK, Waters D, Vittinghoff E, Wenger N; HERS Research Group.
Source Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, 74 New Montgomery St, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. dgrady@itsa.ucsf.edu

The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) found no overall reduction in risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events among postmenopausal women with CHD. However, in the hormone group, findings did suggest a higher risk of CHD events during the first year, and a decreased risk during years 3 to 5.

Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 4.1 years’ duration (HERS) and subsequent unblinded follow-up for 2.7 years (HERS II) conducted at outpatient and community settings at 20 US clinical centers.
PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 2763 postmenopausal women with CHD and average age of 67 years at enrollment in HERS; 2321 women (93% of those surviving) consented to follow-up in HERS II.

Participants were randomly assigned to receive 0.625 mg/d of conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 1380), or placebo (n = 1383) during HERS; open-label hormone therapy was prescribed at personal physicians’ discretion during HERS II. The proportions with at least 80% adherence to hormones declined from 81% (year 1) to 45% (year 6) in the hormone group, and increased from 0% (year 1) to 8% (year 6) in the placebo group.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The primary outcome was nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary cardiovascular events were coronary revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina or congestive heart failure, nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia, sudden death, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and peripheral arterial disease.

RESULTS:

There were no significant decreases in rates of primary CHD events or secondary cardiovascular events among women assigned to the hormone group compared with the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, or overall. The unadjusted relative hazard (RH) for CHD events in HERS was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.22); HERS II, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.77-1.29); and overall, 0.99 (0.84-1.17). The overall RHs were similar after adjustment for potential confounders and differential use of statins between treatment groups (RH, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14), and in analyses restricted to women who were adherent to randomized treatment assignment (RH, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19).

CONCLUSIONS:

Lower rates of CHD events among women in the hormone group in the final years of HERS did not persist during additional years of follow-up. After 6.8 years, hormone therapy did not reduce risk of cardiovascular events in women with CHD. Postmenopausal hormone therapy should not be used to reduce risk for CHD events in women with CHD.
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Mechanism of Protection – Estrogen

23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637768/
Pharmacol Rev. 2008 June; 60(2): 210–241.
VASCULAR ACTIONS OF ESTROGENS: FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS
Virginia M. Miller, Professor, Surgery and Physiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

24) http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/29/3/289.full
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2009; 29: 289-295
Estrogen and Mechanisms of Vascular Protection by Dongqi Xing, Susan Nozell,Yiu-Fai Chen, Fadi Hage, Suzanne Oparil Author Affiliations From the Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine (D.X., Y.-F.C., F.H., S.O.), and the Department of Cell Biology (S.N.), University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Estrogen exerts an early antiinflammatory effect in the rat carotid injury model.4,13,18 This is reflected in an estrogen dependent sexual dimorphism in the vascular injury response, whereby neointima formation (influx of adventitial and medial cells and deposition of interstitial matrix inside the internal elastic lamella) is greater in males than in females.5,6,8,17,38 Further, treatment with a dose of estrogen that results in physiological levels (40 to 60 pg/mL) of circulating hormone markedly attenuates neointima formation in gonadectomized animals of both sexes. Interestingly, coadministration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the synthetic progestin contained in many menopausal hormone preparations and studied in the Women’s Health Initiative, completely blocks the effect of estrogen on neointima formation.8

25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123884/
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2011 March; 20(2): 133–138.
Estrogen, hormonal replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease
by Xiao-Ping Yang, MD, FAHA, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Estrogen

26) http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/29/3/289.full.pdf

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2009; 29: 289-295
Estrogen and Mechanisms of Vascular Protection by Suzanne Oparil, MD, From the Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine (D.X., Y.-F.C., F.H., S.O.), and the Department of Cell Biology (S.N.), University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Estrogen has antiinflammatory and vasoprotective effects when administered to young women or experimental animals that appear to be converted to proinflammatory and vasotoxic effects in older subjects, particularly those that have been hormone free for long periods. Clinical studies have raised many important questions about the vascular effects of estrogen that cannot easily be answered in human subjects.

Here we review cellular/molecular mechanisms by which estrogen modulates injury-induced inflammation, growth factor expression, and oxidative stress in arteries and isolated vascular smooth muscle cells, with emphasis on the role of estrogen receptors and the nuclear factor-κB (NFκBeta signaling pathway, as well as evidence that these protective mechanisms are lost in aging subjects.

27) http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/42/4/657.full
State of the Art Lectures – Hormone Replacement Therapy and Inflammation – Interactions in Cardiovascular Disease by Andrew P. Miller, Yiu-Fai Chen, Dongqi Xing, Wenguang Feng, Suzanne Oparil From the Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Hypertension. 2003; 42: 657-663

Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many forms of vascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Atherogenesis begins with endothelial damage, and the damaged endothelium expresses adhesion molecules, chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokines that direct atherosclerotic plaque formation and spill into the circulation as biomarkers of atherosclerotic disease risk.

Menopausal hormone therapy, including a variety of estrogen preparations with or without a progestin, has negative modulatory effects on most of these soluble inflammatory markers, including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α, inconsistent effects on interleukin-6, and stimulatory effects on transforming growth factor-β, a vasoprotective cytokine. In contrast, C-reactive protein, a circulating proinflammatory cytokine produced in both liver and atherosclerotic arteries, increases in response to oral conjugated estrogens but not to transdermal estrogen.The finding that transdermal estradiol, unlike oral conjugated estrogen, does not elevate circulating CRP levels

As surrogate markers of vascular inflammation, plasma levels of a variety of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and acute phase reactants have been studied and validated as predictors of future cardiovascular events in both women and men. In prospective studies, administration of ovarian hormones to postmenopausal women has been shown to negatively modulate most of these soluble markers, with significant decreases in E-selectin, sVCAM1, sICAM-1, and TNF-α. In contrast, oral hormone therapy increases CRP.

28) www2.uah.es/farmamol/Public/NEnglandJM/estrogen_cv.pdf

N Engl J Med. 1999 Jun 10;340(23):1801-11.

The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. by Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH. Molecular Cardiology Research Institute and the Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Estrogen upregulates EPC’s

29) http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/21/2261.full
Circulation. 2006; 114: 2261-2270
Molecular Cardiology – Estrogen Receptors α and β Mediate Contribution of Bone Marrow–Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Functional Recovery After Myocardial Infarction From the Division of Cardiovascular Research, St Elizabeth Medical Center of Boston, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass (H.H., M.K.K., A.I., M.I., T.T., G.Q., J.A., Y.T., H.S., M.S., A.W., E.B., Y.Z., R.K., D.W.L.), and Stem Cell Translational Research, Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation/RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan (M.I.). Douglas W. Losordo, MD, Cardiovascular Research, Caritas St. Elizabeth Medical Center of Boston, 736 Cambridge St, Boston, MA 02135.

Background— Estradiol (E2) modulates the kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and favorably affects neovascularization after ischemic injury. However, the roles of estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in EPC biology are largely unknown.

Methods and Results— In response to E2, migration, tube formation, adhesion, and estrogen-responsive element–dependent gene transcription activities were severely impaired in EPCs obtained from ERα-knockout mice (ERαKO) and moderately impaired in ERβKO EPCs. The number of ERαΚΟ EPCs (42.4±1.5; P<0.001) and ERβKO EPCs (55.4±1.8; P=0.03) incorporated into the ischemic border zone was reduced as compared with wild-type (WT) EPCs (72.5±1.3). In bone marrow transplantation (BMT) models, the number of mobilized endogenous EPCs in E2-treated mice was significantly reduced in ERαKO BMT (WT mice transplanted with ERαKO bone marrow) (2.03±0.18%; P=0.004 versus WT BMT) and ERβKO BMT (2.62±0.07%; P=0.02 versus WT) compared with WT BMT (2.87±0.13%) (WT to WT BMT as control) mice. Capillary density at the border zone of ischemic myocardium also was significantly reduced in ERαKO BMT and ERβKO BMT compared with WT mice (WT BMT, 1718±75/mm2; ERαKO BMT, 1107±48/mm2; ERβKO BMT, 1567±50/mm2). ERα mRNA was expressed more abundantly on EPCs compared with ERβ. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly downregulated on ERαKO EPCs compared with WT EPCs both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions— Both ERα and ERβ contribute to E2-mediated EPC activation and tissue incorporation and to preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction. ERα plays a more prominent role in this process. Moreover, ERα contributes to upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, revealing possible mechanisms of an effect of E2 on EPC biology. Finally, these data provide additional evidence of the importance of bone marrow–derived EPC phenotype in ischemic tissue repair.

Histology Study of Carotid Plaque in Hormone Users

30) http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/51/4/1135.full
Hypertension. 2008; 51: 1135-1141 Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Risk
Proteasome Activity as a Target of Hormone Replacement Therapy–Dependent
Plaque Stabilization in Postmenopausal Women

Raffaele Marfella et al. From the Departments of Geriatric and Metabolic Diseases (R.M., M.S., M.B., C.B., M.R.R., G.P.) Experimental Medicine (C.D.F., F.R., M.D.), and Clinical and Preventive Medicine (F.F.), and Cardiovascular Research Center (R.M., C.D.F., F.R., G.P.), Second University Naples, Naples, Italy; Cardiovascular Surgery Unit (M.P.), Sassari Hospital, Sassari, Italy; and the Cardiovascular Surgery Unit (B.C.), Hospital V. Monaldi, Naples, Italy.

Now, in the present report, we provide evidence for the critical involvement of UPS in the process of plaque stabilization realized by RT in postmenopausal women. In particular, we evidence an inhibitory effect of RT on UPS activity in human atherosclerotic lesions, show in humans the possibility of UPS activity regulation in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion, and finally we associate the inhibition of UPS with the reduction of inflammation during RT. Lower expression and activity of UPS was found in specimens obtained from carotid lesions of postmenopausal women treated with RT compared with specimens obtained from women never treated with RT.

Perspectives

This study proposes an interesting hypothesis for addressing the missing link between RT and plaque stabilization in postmenopausal women by demonstrating the inhibition of the functional UPS/oxidative stress axis in human atherosclerotic lesions and by providing evidence that it is associated with plaque stabilization possibly by suppression of the NF-KappaBeta–induced inflammation promoting plaque rupture. However, it is worth noticing that, for statins and antagonists of the rennin-angiotensin system, 2 of the most successful drugs in cardiovascular diseases, an antioxidative and a proteasome inhibitory effect have been described.32,33 Whether this is an effect that relates to their clinical benefit, however, awaits further investigation. These findings are also potentially important from a practical standpoint, because they raise the interesting possibility that modification of the UPS activity by RT might provide a novel form of therapy for plaque stabilization of elderly women with atherosclerotic disease and prevention of acute ischemic syndromes.

Animal Models- genetically manipulated mice

31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355098

Estrogens and atherosclerosis: insights from animal models and cell systems Jerzy-Roch Nofer Center for Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Albert Schweizer Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48129 Münster, Germany 2Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

Studies on animal models of atherosclerosis provided compelling evidence that physiological estrogen levels potently attenuate both early and advanced stages of atherosclerosis lesion development in females and suggested similar protective effects in males.

Estradiol metabolite in genetically manipulated mice is protective

32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17446178
Endocrinology. 2007 Sep;148(9):4128-32.
The endogenous estradiol metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. by Bourghardt J, Bergström G, Krettek A, Sjöberg S, Borén J, Tivesten A. Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-413 45 Göteborg, Sweden.

Estradiol, the major endogenous estrogen, reduces experimental atherosclerosis and metabolizes to 2-methoxyestradiol in vascular cells. Currently undergoing evaluation in clinical cancer trials, 2-methoxyestradiol potently inhibits cell proliferation independently of the classical estrogen receptors. This study examined whether 2-methoxyestradiol affects atherosclerosis development in female mice.

Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis, were ovariectomized and treated through slow-release pellets with placebo, 17beta-estradiol (6 microg/d), or 2-methoxyestradiol [6.66 microg/d (low-dose) or 66.6 microg/d (high-dose)]. After 90 d, body weight gain decreased and uterine weight increased in the high-dose but not low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol group.

En face analysis showed that the fractional area of the aorta covered by atherosclerotic lesions decreased in the high-dose 2-methoxyestradiol (52%) but not in the low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol group. Total serum cholesterol levels decreased in the high- and low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol groups (19%, P < 0.05 and 21%, P = 0.062, respectively). Estradiol treatment reduced the fractional atherosclerotic lesion area (85%) and decreased cholesterol levels (42%).

In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in vivo.

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The antiatherogenic activity of an estradiol metabolite lacking estrogen receptor activating capacity may argue that trials on cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy should use estradiol rather than other estrogens.

Future research should define the role of 2-methoxyestradiol as a mediator of the antiatherosclerotic actions of estradiol. Furthermore, evaluation of the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol on cardiovascular disease endpoints in ongoing clinical trials is of great interest.

Estrogen Deficiency causes Cognitive Impaiment

33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761551

Neurology September 11, 2007 vol. 69 no. 11
Increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause . W. A. Rocca, MD, MPH, From the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research (W.A.R., L.J.M.), Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic,

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Estrogen Deficiency Causes Auto-Immune Disease

9% of POV had anti-adrenal antibodies

34) http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/82/3/932
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism March 1, 1997 vol. 82 no. 3 932-938
Adrenal Cortex and Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Autoantibodies in Adult Patients with Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases: Markers of Low Progression to Clinical Addison’s Disease
Corrado Betterle, Marina Volpato, Bernard Rees Smith, Jadwiga Furmaniak, Shu Chen, Nella A. Greggio, Maria Sanzari, Francesco Tedesco, Beniamino Pedini, Marco Boscaro and Fabio Presotto – Author Affiliations Chair of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (C.B., M.V., B.P., F.P.), and Chair of Endocrinology (M.B.) from the Institute of Semeiotica Medica; Department of Pediatrics (N.A.G.), University of Padova, Padova; Chair of Immunology (F.T.), Institute of General Pathology, University of Trieste; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Padova General Hospital (M.S.), Padova, Italy; FIRS Laboratories (B.R.S., J.F., S.C.), RSR Ltd, Parc Ty Glas, Llanishen, Cardiff CF4 5DU and Department of Medicine, University of Wales, College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF4 4XN, United Kingdom.

Adrenal cortex antibodies (ACA) were measured by immunofluorescence in 8840 adult patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases without overt hypoadrenalism. Sixty-seven (0.8%) patients were ACA-positive, with the highest prevalence in those with premature ovarian failure (8.9%). Forty-eight ACA-positive and 20 ACA-negative individuals were enrolled into a prospective study. Antibodies to steroid 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), steroid 17a-hydroxylase (17a-OH) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) were measured by immunoprecipitation assay. Human leucocyte antigens D-related (HLA-DR) genotyping was also carried out and adrenal function assessed by ACTH test. On enrollment, 75% of ACA-positive patients had a normal adrenal function, while 25% revealed a subclinical hypoadrenalism. 21-OH antibodies were positive in 91% of ACA-positive sera. Eleven patients were positive for steroid-cell antibodies by immunofluorescence, and 9 revealed a positivity for antibodies to 17a-OH and/or P450scc. During the prospective study, overt Addison’s disease developed in 21% and subclinical hypoadrenalism in 29% of ACA-positive patients, while 50% maintained normal adrenal function. Progression to Addison’s disease was more frequent in patients with subclinical hypoadrenalism, high titers of ACA and higher levels of 21-OH antibodies, complement-fixing ACA and HLA-DR3 status. All 20 persistently ACA-negative patients were also negative for antibodies to 21-OH, 17a-OH, and P450scc, and all maintained normal adrenal function during follow-up. In conclusion, the detection of ACA/21-OH antibodies in adults is a marker of low progression toward clinical Addison’s disease.

Hormones Improve Bone Density by 5% over 3.5 yrs.

35) http://www.annals.org/content/130/11/897.abstract

Annals of Internal Med . June 1, 1999 vol. 130 no. 11 897-904
The Effect of Low-Dose Continuous Estrogen and Progesterone Therapy with Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone in Elderly Women. A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Robert R. Recker, MD; K. Michael Davies, PhD; Rachel M. Dowd, RN; and Robert P. Heaney, MD
+ Author Affiliations From Osteoporosis Research Center, School of Medicine, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska.

Abstract

Background: Hormone replacement therapy (RT), the mainstay of osteoporosis prevention, is limited because of dose-related risks, side effects, and patient acceptance. The bone-sparing efficacy and tolerability of the lowest available doses of RT have not been adequately studied in elderly women.

Objective: To determine the bone-sparing effect of continuous low-dose RT in elderly women.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: University osteoporosis research and clinical center.

Patients: 128 healthy white women (age > 65 years) with low bone mass recruited by word of mouth and by local advertisement. The principal eligibility criterion was spinal bone mineral density of 0.90 g/cm2 or less.

Intervention: Continuous therapy with conjugated equine estrogen, 0.3 mg/d, and medroxyprogesterone, 2.5 mg/d, or matching placebo. Sufficient calcium supplementation was given to bring all calcium intakes above 1000 mg/d in both groups; supplemental oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D was given to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 75 nmol/L in both groups.

Measurements: Bone mineral density of the spine, hip, total body, and forearm; serum total alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin levels at 6-month intervals; and 24-hour urine creatinine and hydroxyproline excretion at baseline, 12 months, and 42 months.

Results: During 3.5 years of observation, spinal bone mineral density increased by 3.5% (P < 0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and by 5.2% among patients with greater than 90% adherence to therapy. Significant increases were seen in total-body and forearm bone density (P < 0.01). Symptoms related to RT (breast tenderness, spotting, pelvic discomfort, and mood changes) were mild and short-lived.

Conclusions: Continuous low-dose RT with conjugated equine estrogen and oral medroxyprogesterone combined with adequate calcium and vitamin D provides a bone-sparing effect that is similar or superior to that provided by other, higher-dose RT regimens in elderly women. This combination is well tolerated by most patients.
.

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Adrenal Antibody Screen with Reflex to Titer

Service code 4645 CPT Code(s): 86255,86256 Includes: If Adrenal Antibody Screen is positive, Adrenal Antibody Titer with Pattern will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

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HEART DISEASE- Danish Nurse Cohort Study

36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955642
Maturitas. 2006 Jan 20;53(2):226-33.

The association between early menopause and risk of ischaemic heart disease: influence of Hormone Therapy. Løkkegaard E, Jovanovic Z, Heitmann BL, Keiding N, Ottesen B, Pedersen AT. The Danish Nurse Cohort Study, Center for Alcohol Research, National Institute of Public Health, Denmark.
Abstract

Randomised clinical trials find no protection against development of ischaemic heart disease by use of Hormone Therapy (HT) after the age of 50 years. Observational studies suggest that early menopause is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. Yet, a clinical very relevant question is whether HT reduces this risk associated with early menopause.

OBJECTIVE:

To analyse whether early menopause based on various causes are independent risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, and to investigate whether the risks are modified by use of HT.

METHODS:

In a prospective cohort study questionnaires were mailed to Danish female nurses above 44 years of age in 1993. Information on menopause, use of HT and lifestyle was obtained. In total 19,898 (86%) nurses fulfilled the questionnaire, among them 10.533 were postmenopausal with definable menopausal age, free of previous ischaemic heart disease, stroke or cancer. Through individual linkage to national register incident cases of ischaemic heart disease were identified until end of 1998.

RESULTS:

Menopause below both age 40 and 45 was associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, seeming most pronounced for women who had an early ovariectomy but also among spontaneous menopausal women. Generally HT did not reduce the risk except for the early-ovariectomised women, where no increased risk of ischaemic heart disease for HT users was found.

CONCLUSION:

We found an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease associated with early removal of the ovaries that might be reduced with HT. The present study need confirmation from other studies but suggests that early ovariectomised women could benefit from HT.

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37) http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(12)70110-9/fulltext

The Lancet Oncology, Early Online Publication, 7 March 2012
Oestrogen and breast cancer: results from the WHI trial
Anthony Howell and Jack Cuzick MD

In The Lancet Oncology, the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) investigators report1 that receipt of conjugated equine oestrogen for a median of 5·9 years reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer by 23% compared with placebo (151 cases in 5310 women who received oestrogen vs 199 cases in 5429 controls; p=0·02).

Women who did develop breast cancer after receipt of oestrogen had significantly reduced breast cancer-specific mortality (six deaths in the oestrogen group vs 16 deaths in controls; p=0·03) and all-cause mortality (30 deaths vs 50 deaths; p=0·04).

This preventive effect occurred at all ages and continued beyond the period of oestrogen use, a carryover effect also noted in prevention trials of tamoxifen.2

Although modest, the WHI results are significant and raise important questions about their disparity with many observational studies and the mechanism of reported benefit with oestrogen therapy.

Most observational studies on the use of oestrogen-only hormone replacement suggest an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas some show risk neutrality, and a few agree with the reduced risk reported by the WHI.3

Traditionally, randomized controlled trials have greater validity than do observational studies.
However, the overall weight of evidence in terms of number of independent studies is also important, and the WHI trial is the only randomized controlled trial examining oestrogen therapy that supports this view.

The present results of WHI1 should be seen in the context of the update of the study in 2011 reporting the effects of oestrogen on overall health.8 No overall difference was noted in participants’ global index of health (including cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and embolism, breast and colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death from all causes).

However this null result masks an unexpected but significant interaction with age (p=0·009) with health improvements in young women and health decrements in older women.

Young women (50—59 years) taking oestrogen were significantly less likely to have coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and death from all causes, not only with respect to older women but also placebo controls of the same age. The reasons for such an interaction with age deserve further investigation.

Whether the benefits of oestrogen therapy in young women can be translated to all oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy is unknown, and perhaps only conjugated equine oestrogens should be prescribed at present.

The WHI investigators should be congratulated for providing insight into the value of conjugated equine oestrogens and young women can be reassured of the low risks and potentially striking benefits, provided that they are counselled about the small increases in thromboembolic disease as noted with most hormonal preparations.

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Statin Drugs for Primary Prevention in Women – NO reduction in Mortality

38) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/291/18/2243

JAMA 2004 -Drug Treatment of Hyperlipidemia in Women – Judith M. E. Walsh, MD, MPH, Women’s Health Clinical Research Center, 1635 Divisadero, Suite 600, Campus Box 1793, San Francisco, CA 94115

38 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18793814
Int J Cardiol. 2010 Jan 7;138(1):25-31. Epub 2008 Sep 14.
Impact of gender in primary prevention of coronary heart disease with statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Petretta M, Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Chiariello M.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Immunological and Cardiovascular Sciences, Federico II University, Via S. Pansini 5 Naples 80131, Italy

We performed a meta-analysis including 8 randomized controlled trials (19,052 and 30,194 men, mean follow-up 3.9 years) that assessed the cardiovascular outcomes related to statin therapy, including studies that provided sex-specific results. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database, were searched for articles published in English and other languages up to March 2008.

Statins do not appear to have a beneficial effect on total mortality for both men and women in primary prevention over the 2.8- to 5.3 year study period (men: 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.83-1.04; comparison p = 0.22; women: 0.96; CI 0.81-1.13; p = 0.61).

Statin therapy reduced the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in men (0.59; CI 0.48-0.74; p = 0.0001), however in women this risk reduction was weakly significant (0.89 CI 0.79-1.00; p = 0.05) and disappeared when in sensitivity analysis, trials not entirely of primary prevention were excluded (HPS, PROSPER) (0.95 CI 0.78-1.16; comparison p = 0.562).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study showed that statin therapy reduced the risk of CHD events in men without prior cardiovascular disease, but not in women. Statins did not reduce the risk of total mortality both in men and women.

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Kausik K. Ray- Archives – Statins and All Cause Mortality

39) http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/170/12/1024
Statins and All-Cause Mortality in High-Risk Primary Prevention- A Meta-analysis of 11 Randomized Controlled Trials Involving 65 229 Participants. by Kausik K. Ray, MD, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(12):1024-1031. June

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Nurses Health Study

40) http://www.annals.org/content/133/12/933.abstract
A Prospective, Observational Study of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease by Francine Grodstein, ScD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD; Graham A. Colditz, MD; Walter C. Willett, MD; Frank E. Speizer, MD; and Meir J. Stampfer, MD From the Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Most primary prevention studies have found that long-term users of postmenopausal hormone therapy are at lower risk for coronary events, but numerous questions remain. An adverse influence of hormone therapy on cardiovascular risk has been suggested during the initial year of use; however, few data are available on short-term hormone therapy. In addition, the cardiovascular effects of daily doses of oral conjugated estrogen lower than 0.625 mg are unknown, and few studies have examined estrogen plus progestin in this regard.

Objective: To investigate duration, dose, and type of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Design: Prospective, observational cohort study.

Setting: Nurses’ Health Study, with follow-up from 1976 to 1996.

Patients: 70 533 postmenopausal women, in whom 1258 major coronary events (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary disease) and 767 strokes were identified.
Measurements: Details of postmenopausal hormone use were ascertained by using biennial questionnaires. Cardiovascular disease was established by using a questionnaire and was confirmed by medical record review. Logistic regression models were used to calculate relative risks and 95% CIs, adjusted for confounders.

Results: When all cardiovascular risk factors were considered, the risk for major coronary events was lower among current users of hormone therapy, including short-term users, compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.71]).

Conclusions: Postmenopausal hormone use appears to decrease risk for major coronary events in women without previous heart disease. Furthermore, 0.3 mg of oral conjugated estrogen daily is associated with a reduction similar to that seen with the standard dose of 0.625 mg. However, estrogen at daily doses of 0.625 mg or greater and in combination with progestin may increase risk for stroke.

41) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637768/

VASCULAR ACTIONS OF ESTROGENS: FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS
Pharmacol Rev. 2008 June; 60(2): 210–241. Virginia M. Miller, Professor, Surgery and Physiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

Key aspects of the relevant pathophysiology of inflammation, atherosclerosis, stroke, migraine and thrombosis are reviewed concerning current knowledge of estrogenic effects. A number of emerging concepts are addressed throughout. These include the importance of estrogenic formulation and route of administration and the impact of genetic polymorphisms, either in estrogen receptors or in enzymes responsible for estrogen metabolism, on responsiveness to hormone treatment. The importance of local metabolism of estrogenic precursors and the impact of timing for initiation of treatment and its duration are also considered.

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french cohort study 2008

42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2211383/

Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone
replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study.  Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 January ; 107(1): 103–111.  Agnès Fournier1, Franco Berrino2, and Françoise Clavel-Chapelon1,*

During follow-up (mean duration 8.1 postmenopausal years), 2,354 cases of invasive breast cancer occurred among 80,377 postmenopausal women. Compared with RT never-use, use of estrogen alone was associated with a significant 1.29-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval 1.02–1.65).

The association of estrogen-progestagen combinations with breast cancer risk varied significantly according to the type of progestagen: the relative risk was
1.00 (0.83–1.22) for estrogen–progesterone,
1.16 (0.94–1.43) for estrogen–dydrogesterone, and
1.69 (1.50–1.91) for estrogen combined with other progestagens.

This latter category involves progestins with different physiologic activities (androgenic, nonandrogenic, antiandrogenic), but their associations with breast cancer risk did not differ significantly from one another. This study found no evidence of an association with risk according to the route of estrogen administration (oral or transdermal/percutaneous).

These findings suggest that the choice of the progestagen component in combined RT is of importance regarding breast cancer risk; it could be preferable to use progesterone or dydrogesterone.

================

43) http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/4/5/633.full
Paradoxical Clinical Effect of Estrogen on Breast Cancer Risk: A “New” Biology of Estrogen-induced Apoptosis. V. Craig Jordan1 and Leslie G. Ford2 Authors’ Affiliations: 1Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; and 2Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Administration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) decreases the incidence of breast cancer, as shown in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 10,739 postmenopausal women with a prior hysterectomy. Although paradoxical because estrogen is recognized to stimulate breast cancer growth, laboratory data support a mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis under the correct environmental circumstances. Long-term antiestrogen treatment or estrogen deprivation causes the eventual development and evolution of antihormone resistance. Cell populations emerge with a vulnerability, as estrogen is no longer a survival signal but is an apoptotic trigger. The antitumor effect of ERT in estrogen-deprived postmenopausal women is consistent with laboratory models. Cancer Prev Res; 4(5); 633–7. ©2011 AACR.

As the WHI study of ERT shows (7), physiologic estrogen has delivered what the scientific database would now predict.

When the WHI was initiated in 1993, their present clinical result of a reduction in breast cancer was unanticipated (7) but is consistent nevertheless with parallel laboratory studies completed over the past 20 years.

Cumulative evidence to support low dose estrogen-induced apoptosis in long-term estrogen-deprived nascent breast cancer

Historical use of estrogens to treat breast cancer.
Physiologic estrogen as an antitumor agent in SERM-resistant breast cancer models in vivo. Estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen-deprived ER-positive cell lines in vitro.
A current evaluation of estrogen to treat acquired antihormone resistance in metastatic breast cancer. The extrapolation of the concept that physiologic estrogen kills breast cancer cells to adjuvant antihormone therapy.

Physiologic estradiol does not promote tumor growth, but small tumors undergo rapid and complete regression

44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6849802?dopt=Abstract
Br J Cancer. 1983 May;47(5):641-7.
Effect of 17 beta-oestradiol on growth curves and flow cytometric DNA distribution of two human breast carcinomas grown in nude mice. Brünner N, Spang-Thomsen M, Vindeløv L, Nielsen A.

The effect of 17 beta-oestradiol on a “receptor positive” and on a “receptor negative” human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice was studied. Experimental growth data were used to determine the effect on tumour growth. Flow cytometric DNA analysis (FCM) performed on tumour tissue obtained by sequential fine-needle aspirations was used to estimate the effect on the cell cycle. In the receptor-positive breast carcinoma, oestradiol induced complete tumour regression and characteristic cell cycle changes. In the receptor-negative breast carcinoma, no changes in tumour growth and cell cycle distribution could be demonstrated following the treatment. The results indicate that the oestradiol-induced cell kill could be explained to some extent by the induction of polyploid cells, which eventually die. Since the cell cycle changes monitored by FCM in the receptor-positive breast carcinoma appeared prior to any reduction in the tumour size, the results suggest that FCM may prove a valuable method in the early detection of tumour response to hormone treatment in human breast cancer.

45) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/305/13/1305.abstract
JAMA. 2011;305(13):1305-1314.  Health Outcomes After Stopping Conjugated Equine Estrogens Among Postmenopausal Women With Prior Hysterectomy A Randomized Controlled Trial Andrea Z. LaCroix, PhD; Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, PhD;et al for the WHI Investigators

Over the entire follow-up, lower breast cancer incidence in the CEE group persisted and was 0.27% compared with 0.35% in the placebo group (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.95).

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46) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/305/13/1354.full
Editorial – JAMA. 2011;305(13):1354-1355.
Short-term Use of Unopposed Estrogen A Balance of Inferred Risks and Benefits by Emily S. Jungheim, MD, MSCI; Graham A. Colditz, MD, DrPH

Idiotic statement – previously quoted studies used progestins.

“the reduced incidence of breast cancer persisted. This finding is inconsistent with a longstanding, corroborated body of evidence7,8? and raises the possibility that other important factors modify documented risks and benefits of estrogen therapy among these long-term WHI participants. ”

47) http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(12)70075-X/abstract The Lancet Oncology, Early Online Publication, 7 March 2012
Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized placebo-controlled trial

Prof Garnet L Anderson PhD a Corresponding AuthorEmail Address, Prof Rowan T Chlebowski MD b, Aaron K Aragaki MS a, Prof Lewis H Kuller MD c, Prof JoAnn E Manson MD d, Prof Margery Gass MD e, Elizabeth Bluhm MD f, Prof Stephanie Connelly MD g, Prof F Allan Hubbell MD h, Prof Dorothy Lane MD i, Lisa Martin MD j, Prof Judith Ockene PhD k, Prof Thomas Rohan MBBS l, Prof Robert Schenken MD m, Prof Jean Wactawski-Wende PhD n

Methods
Between 1993 and 1998, the WHI enrolled 10 739 postmenopausal women from 40 US clinical centres into a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Women aged 50—79 years who had undergone hysterectomy and had expected 3-year survival and mammography clearance were randomly allocated by a computerised, permuted block algorithm, stratified by age group and centre, to receive oral conjugated equine oestrogen (0·625 mg per day; n=5310) or matched placebo (n=5429). The trial intervention was terminated early on Feb 29, 2004, because of an adverse effect on stroke. Follow-up continued until planned termination (March 31, 2005). Consent was sought for extended surveillance from the 9786 living participants in active follow-up, of whom 7645 agreed. Using data from this extended follow-up (to Aug 14, 2009), we assessed long-term effects of oestrogen use on invasive breast cancer incidence, tumour characteristics, and mortality. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) in the intention-to-treat population.

Findings After a median follow-up of 11·8 years (IQR 9·1—12·9), the use of oestrogen for a median of 5·9 years (2·5—7·3) was associated with lower incidence of invasive breast cancer (151 cases, 0·27% per year) compared with placebo (199 cases, 0·35% per year; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·62—0·95; p=0·02) with no difference (p=0·76) between intervention phase (0·79, 0·61—1·02) and post-intervention phase effects (0·75, 0·51—1·09). In subgroup analyses, we noted breast cancer risk reduction with oestrogen use was concentrated in women without benign breast disease (p=0·01) or a family history of breast cancer (p=0·02). In the oestrogen group, fewer women died from breast cancer (six deaths, 0·009% per year) compared with controls (16 deaths, 0·024% per year; HR 0·37, 95% CI 0·13—0·91; p=0·03). Fewer women in the oestrogen group died from any cause after a breast cancer diagnosis (30 deaths, 0·046% per year) than did controls (50 deaths, 0·076%; HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·39—0·97; p=0·04).
Interpretation
Our findings provide reassurance for women with hysterectomy seeking relief of climacteric symptoms in terms of the effects of oestrogen use for about 5 years on breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, our data do not support use of oestrogen for breast cancer risk reduction because any noted benefit probably does not apply to populations at increased risk of such cancer.

48) http://www.lancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(12)70110-9/fulltext?_eventId=login

The Lancet Oncology, Early Online Publication, 7 March 2012. Oestrogen and breast cancer: results from the WHI trial Anthony Howell Jack Cuzick

Young women (50—59 years) taking oestrogen were significantly less likely to have coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and death from all causes, not only with respect to older women but also placebo controls of the same age.

Observational and WHI studies agree on the increased risk of breast cancer with combined hormone replacement therapy (including a progestin).

“The WHI investigators should be congratulated for providing insight into the value of conjugated equine oestrogens and young women can be reassured of the low risks and potentially striking benefits,”

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49)  http://www.latimes.com/health/la-he-estrogen-breast-cancer-20120307,0,1238385.story

Estrogen taken alone is linked to lower breast cancer risk By Shari Roan, Los Angeles Times March 7, 2012.  An analysis finds that women who took the hormone by itself after menopause had a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. ”’  Dr. Rowan T. Chlebowski, an investigator at the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute in Torrance and chief of medical oncology and hematology at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center.said : ” Estrogen alone for the period we studied seems to be pretty safe and maybe even beneficial.”

Researchers followed 7,645 women from the original group of almost 11,000 participants for almost five years to see what happened to them after stopping estrogen therapy. The study found that women who took estrogen had a 23% reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those who took a placebo.

Among the women who did develop breast cancer, those who took estrogen had a 63% reduced risk of dying from the disease compared with those who took a placebo.

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50) http://www.internalmedicinenews.com/specialty-focus/oncology-hematology/single-article-page/estrogen-protects-against-breast-cancer-long-after-treatment.html

Estrogen Protects Against Breast Cancer Long After Treatment By: MARY ANN MOON, Internal Medicine News Digital Network

(Link removed)
Estrogen-only RT continues to protect women against breast cancer long after they have stopped March 6, 2012 in Cancer

Women who use the oestrogen-only form of hormone replacement therapy (RT) appear less likely to develop breast cancer in the longer term, according to new research published Online First in The Lancet Oncology. A follow-up study of over 7500 women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial who took oestrogen for about 6 years and then stopped has found that they are over 20% less likely to develop breast cancer and remain significantly less likely to die from the disease than those who never used RT, a period of nearly 5 years after stopping treatment.

51) http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/05/estrogen-lowers-risk-of-heart-attack-and-breast-cancer-in-some/ Estrogen Lowers Breast Cancer and Heart Attack Risk in Some By TARA PARKER-POPE April 5, 2011   Dr. Chlebowski previously led research that showed cancer risks associated with combination hormone therapy, but he says the new data on estrogen alone show that in certain women, estrogen use to relieve menopausal symptoms is a “good choice.”

52) http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57392262-10391704/estrogen-pills-reduce-breast-cancer-risk-in-study-of-menopausal-women/
Estrogen pills reduce breast cancer risk in study of menopausal women By CBS News Staff

“Estrogen on its own appears to be safe,” said Dr. Anthony Howell, professor of medical oncology at the University of Manchester, who co-authored a commentary in the same issue.

53) http://www.suzannesomers.com/Blog/post/My-Response-to-New-York-Times-Blog-by-Tara-Pope.aspx

My Response to New York Times Article by Tara Pope by Suzanne Somers 4/6/2011 2:43:00 PM  Hi Friends, This is my response to Tara Pope’s article yesterday in the New York Times. I have no idea if they will print my letter but I thought you’d like my perspective. Her article follows my response. Ms. Pope ignores the existence of biodidentical hormone replacement therapy.

54) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/07/estrogen-breast-cancer_n_1326626.html

Estrogen Lowers Breast Cancer Risk In Some Women By MARIA CHENG 03/ 6/12

55) http://www.drugs.com/news/estrogen-only-therapy-may-reduce-breast-cancer-risk-36841.html

Estrogen-Only Therapy May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk TUESDAY March 6, 2012 — Some women who take estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy to stave off hot flashes, night sweats and other symptoms of menopause may be at lower risk for developing breast cancer down the road, a news study says.

56) http://kwgn.com/2012/03/08/study-estrogen-treatment-may-protect-against-breast-cancer-5/
Study: Estrogen treatment may protect against breast cancer March 8, 2012, by Nina Sparano

DENVER — Estrogen, a hormone known to fuel breast cancer, may actually protect against the disease. According to a new study women taking Hormone Replacement Therapy (RT) are more than 20-percent less likely to develop breast cancer and had a reduced risk of dying from the disease.More than 7,600 women taking RT were studied. Women who took estrogen-only for six years and then stopped taking the hormone showed the reduced risk.

The new study, published in the journal Lancet Oncology, provides the strongest evidence yet that estrogen alone not only lowers breast cancer risk for a sustained time for some women but curbs the chances of dying from the disease.

A Positive Research on Estrogen and Breast Cancer Posted by hodgeroberts on March 7, 2012
Many females that consumed only estrogen as a way for hormone replacement therapy following menopause faced a lower chance of developing cancer of the breast up to 5 years after they ceased taking this, as reported in a study. The review, released recently, provides another angle to the changing story of whether hormonal replacement treatment helps a few women more than treating menopause indications for example hot flashes as well as poor rest condition.

he review is a follow up evaluation of a prior milestone of an effort in women’s health, a medical trial of thousands of females started a few years back that searched to explain the potential risks and advantages of two hormonal replacement treatment sessions within post-menopausal women: a combo of estrogen plus progestin, that nearly all women will need to take, and only estrogen, used by ladies who have gotten hysterectomies.

57) http://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/stories/breast-cancer-risk-reduced-by-estrogen-only-hormone-replacement-th
Breast cancer risk reduced by estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy
The lowered risk was not found in women with a family history of the disease, and the therapy comes with a risk of stroke and blood clots, the researchers said.
By Rachael Rettner, MyHealthNewsDailyTue, Mar 06 2012 at 6:36 PM EST

58) http://www.cancernews.us/2012/03/estrogen-therapy-helps-reduce-breast.html
Friday, March 9, 2012

Estrogen therapy helps reduce breast cancer risk in some patients

Dr Susan Love
59) http://blog.dslrf.org/?p=497
Estrogen and Breast Cancer: It’s Complicated!
The conventional wisdom is that estrogen causes breast cancer.

60) http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20120306/estrogen-after-hysterectomy-lowers-cancer-risk
Estrogen After Hysterectomy Lowers Cancer Risk? Experts Say the Decision to Use Hormone Replacement Is a Still Complicated One By Brenda Goodman, MA WebMD Health News

Compared to women taking a placebo, women who took estrogen had a 23% reduced risk of invasive breast cancer. That means 151 women got breast cancer in the estrogen group compared to 199 women assigned to the placebo.
Women taking estrogen also had a 63% reduced risk of dying from breast cancer compared to women on the placebo. Overall, there were six deaths in the estrogen group compared to 16 in the placebo group.

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studies which show that estrogen causes breast cancer (????)
They included progestin use….

61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10213546
Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer – . Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer.  Lancet. 1997;350(9084):1047–1059.
(They used RT which included synthetic progestin)

62) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/265/15/1985.abstract
A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. Steinberg KK ,Thacker SB, Smith SJ,et al

The increase in risk was largely due to results of studies that included premenopausal women or women using estradiol (with or without progestin), studies for which the estimated relative risk was 2.2 (CI, 1.4 to 3.4) after 15 years.
(Again progestins were included)

Million Womnen Study

63) http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/103/4/296.full
Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to the Interval Between Menopause and Starting Hormone Therapy by Valerie Beral, Gillian Reeves, Diana Bull, Jane Green and for the Million Women Study JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2011) 103 (4): 296-305.

Among current users of estrogen-only formulations, there was little or no increase in risk if use began 5 years or more after menopause (RR = 1.05,
Breast cancer risk was statistically significantly increased in users of estrogen-only hormonal therapy if use began before or less than 5 years after menopause (RR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.35 to 1.51, P < .001), whereas if such use began 5 years or more after menopause, breast cancer risk was not increased (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.24, P = .6).

among current users of estrogen–progestin formulations (RR = 1.53 )

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2010 SABCS Interview with Rowan T. Chlebowski, M.D., Ph.D.

discusses WHI Data
64) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ze2Y742NTSo

65) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0APKwNLC3Bk
laura esserman breast cancer video

sept 2011

mammography screening
how can it help and what are its limitations.

key is cancer biology.
Beast cancer is not one disease

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66) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/291/14/1701.full
JAMA. 2004;291(14):1701-1712.
Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy
The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial ,The Women’s Health Initiative Steering Committee* Garnet L. Anderson, PhD, WHI Clinical Coordinating Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M3-A410, Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109

5200 women CEE, 5200 placebo, with 7 year follow up

Cancer. Invasive breast cancer,
23% lower rate in the CEE group than in the placebo group (26 vs 33 per 10 000 person-years)
94 CEE 124 placebo and this comparison narrowly missed statistical significance (P = .06).

Results CEE vs placebo (average follow-up 6.8 years):
CHD, 0.91 (0.75-1.12) with 376 cases;
breast cancer, 0.77 (0.59-1.01) with 218 cases; (94 CEE and 124 placebo)
stroke, 1.39 (1.10-1.77) with 276 cases;
PE, 1.34 (0.87-2.06) with 85 cases;
colorectal cancer, 1.08 (0.75-1.55) with 119 cases; and
hip fracture, 0.61 (0.41-0.91) with 102 cases.

67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10213546
Lancet. 1997 Oct 11;350(9084):1047-59.

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http://win.menopausaitaliana.it/Chlebowski 3243 JAMA.pdf
68) http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/289/24/3243.short
JAMA. 2003;289(24):3243-3253
Influence of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Breast Cancer and Mammography in Healthy Postmenopausal Women The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial by Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, PhD et al. for the WHI Investigators

Main Outcome Measures Breast cancer number and characteristics, and frequency of abnormal mammograms by estrogen plus progestin exposure.

Results In intent-to-treat analyses, estrogen plus progestin increased total (245 vs 185 cases; hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; weighted P<.001) and invasive (199 vs 150 cases; HR, 1.24; weighted P = .003) breast cancers compared with placebo. The invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the estrogen plus progestin group were similar in histology and grade but were larger (mean [SD], 1.7 cm [1.1] vs 1.5 cm [0.9], respectively; P = .04) and were at more advanced stage (regional/metastatic 25.4% vs 16.0%, respectively; P = .04) compared with those diagnosed in the placebo group. After 1 year, the percentage of women with abnormal mammograms was substantially greater in the estrogen plus progestin group (716 [9.4%] of 7656) compared with placebo group (398 [5.4%] of 7310; P<.001), a pattern which continued for the study duration.

Conclusions Relatively short-term combined estrogen plus progestin use increases incident breast cancers, which are diagnosed at a more advanced stage compared with placebo use, and also substantially increases the percentage of women with abnormal mammograms. These results suggest estrogen plus progestin may stimulate breast cancer growth and hinder breast cancer diagnosis.

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LOW Testosterone and Mortality from Heart Disease

69) Hyde Z, Norman PE, Flicker L, et al. Low free testosterone predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease but not other causes: The Health in Men Study.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011  Low testosterone predicts increased mortality and testosterone replacement therapy improves survival in men with type 2 diabetes by Vakkat Muraleedharan1,2, Hazel Marsh1 & Hugh Jones1,2 1Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnley, UK; 2University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Low testosterone in men is associated with increase in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There is a high prevalence of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves cardiovascular risk. However there is no published data regarding mortality in these patients in relation to testosterone levels, and the long term effect of TRT on mortality.

Aim: We report a 6 year follow-up study examining the effect of baseline testosterone and TRT in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes on all-cause mortality.

Methods: Five hundred eighty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes had total testosterone (TT) performed between 2002 and 2005 and were followed up for 5.8±1.3 years.

Deaths during the first 6 months were excluded. Patients were then analysed in three groups. i) normal TT (>10.4 nmol/l) ii) low TT (=10.4 nmol/l) without TRT. iii) low TT receiving TRT for 2 years or more.

Results: Of 580 patients analysed, 338 had normal TT (58%) and 240 low TT (42%). In the low TT group 58 patients received TRT. Mean age 61±11 S.D. and similarly matched in all three groups. Total deaths 72 (12.4%). Mortality rates – low TT without treatment (36/182-20%), normal TT (31/338-9%) and low TT with TRT (5/58-8.6%). Survival was significantly decreased in patients with low TT without TRT (P=0.001 log rank) compared to normal. The treated group had improved survival (P=0.049 log rank). In the Cox Regression model multi-variate (age, weight, HbA1c, pre existing cardiovascular disease, smoking, statin and ACEi/ARB use) adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.7 P=0.001) for low TT.

Conclusions: This study shows that men with type 2 diabetes and low testosterone have a significant increased mortality. TRT improved survival compared to those untreated, recording a similar mortality rate to the normal TT group.

EPIC Study

70) Circulation. 2007;116:2694-2701. Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Men. European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Prospective Population Study. Kay-Tee Khaw, MBBChir, FRCP; Mitch Dowsett, PhD; Elizabeth Folkerd, PhD; Sheila Bingham, PhD; Nicholas Wareham, MBBS, PhD; Robert Luben, BSc; Ailsa Welch, PhD; Nicholas Day, PhD

Male Veterans

71) Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality in Male Veterans Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1660-1665 Molly M. Shores, MD; Alvin M. Matsumoto, MD; Kevin L. Sloan, MD; Daniel R. Kivlahan, PhD .

72) The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2008 Jan;93(1):68-75.
Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality in Older Men. Gail A. Laughlin, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor and Jaclyn Bergstrom.

Update 2016

73) Review article Atherosclerosis Volume 254, November 2016, Pages 282–290
Back to the future: Hormone replacement therapy as part of a prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause
Roger A. Loboa, , , James H. Pickara, John C. Stevensonb, Wendy J. Mackc, Howard N. Hodisc a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA b National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP, UK
c Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Departments of Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90022, USA Received 1 July 2016, Revised 29 July 2016,

In the late 1980s, several observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was beneficial for prevention of osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia and decreased all-cause mortality. In 1992, the American College of Physicians recommended HRT for prevention of coronary disease. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several randomized trials in older women suggested coronary harm and that the risks, including breast cancer, outweighed any benefit. HRT stopped being prescribed at that time, even for women who had severe symptoms of menopause. Subsequently, reanalyzes of the randomized trial data, using age stratification, as well as newer studies, and meta-analyses have been consistent in showing that younger women, 50–59 years or within 10 years of menopause, have decreased coronary disease and all-cause mortality; and did not have the perceived risks including breast cancer. These newer findings are consistent with the older observational data. It has also been reported that many women who abruptly stopped HRT had more risks, including more osteoporotic fractures. The current data confirm a “timing” hypothesis for benefits and risks of HRT, showing that younger have many benefits and few risks, particularly if therapy is predominantly focused on the estrogen component. We discuss these findings and put into perspective the potential risks of treatment, and suggest that we may have come full circle regarding the use of HRT. In so doing we propose that HRT should be considered as part of a general prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause.

74)  Menopause. 2015 Sep;22(9):976-83.
Estradiol-based postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.  Mikkola TS1, Tuomikoski P, Lyytinen H, Korhonen P, Hoti F, Vattulainen P, Gissler M, Ylikorkala O.
OBJECTIVE:Data on the health benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) are derived mainly from the use of conjugated equine estrogens. Estradiol-based regimens may have a different risk-benefit profile. We evaluated the risk of death caused by coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or any disease among users of estradiol-based HT regimens in a nationwide study in Finland.
METHODS:A total of 489,105 women who used HT from 1994 to 2009 (3.3 million HT exposure years), as indicated in the nationwide reimbursement register and the national Cause of Death Register, were followed. A total of 28,734 HT users died during follow-up; among the deaths, 3,843 were caused by CHD and 2,464 were caused by stroke. Mortality risk in HT users with varying duration of exposure (≤1 y, >1 to 3 y, >3 to 5 y, >5 to 10 y, or >10 y) was compared with that in an age-matched background population.
RESULTS: Risk of CHD death was significantly reduced by 18% to 54% in HT users and was positively related to HT exposure time. Risk of stroke death was also reduced by 18% to 39%, but this reduction was not clearly related to HT exposure time. Risk of all-cause mortality was reduced in HT users by 12% to 38%, almost in linear relationship with duration of exposure. All these risk reductions were comparable in women initiating HT before age 60 years and women initiating HT at age 60 years or older.
CONCLUSIONS:In absolute terms, the risk reductions mean 19 fewer CHD deaths and 7 fewer stroke deaths per 1,000 women using any HT for at least 10 years.

75) Reduced risk of breast cancer mortality in women using postmenopausal hormone therapy: a Finnish nationwide comparative study
Menopause: November 2016 – Volume 23 – Issue 11 – p 1199–1203
Mikkola, Tomi S. MD, PhD; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna MD, PhD; Tuomikoski, Pauliina MD, PhD; Hoti, Fabian PhD; Vattulainen, Pia MSc; Gissler, Mika M.SocSci, PhD; Ylikorkala, Olavi MD, PhD
Objective: Data are controversial on the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on breast cancer mortality. We analyzed nationwide Finnish data on breast cancer mortality risk in women using HT consisting of estradiol-only therapy (ET) or estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT).
Methods: In total, 489,105 women using HT in 1994 to 2009, traced from the nationwide reimbursement register, were followed from the HT initiation (3.3 million cumulative exposure years) to breast cancer death (n = 1,578 women). The observed deaths were compared with those in the age-standardized background population.
Results: The breast cancer mortality risk was reduced in all HT users with exposure for at most 5 years (standardized mortality ratio 0.56; CI 0.52-0.60), more than 5 to 10 years (0.46; 0.41-0.51), or more than 10 years (0.62; 0.56-0.68). A significantly larger risk reduction was detected in the 50 to 59 years age group (0.33; 0.29-0.37) compared with 60 to 69 (0.64; 0.59-0.70) or 70 to 79 (0.78; 0.69-0.87) years age groups. The death risk reductions in ET users tended to be larger in all age groups compared with EPT users, with a significant difference only in the 70 to 79 years age group (0.66; 0.57-0.76 vs 0.88; 0.77-1.00). The age at HT initiation, regardless whether ET or EPT, showed no association with breast cancer mortality.
Conclusions: In the Finnish unselected population, breast cancer is fatal in 1 of 10 patients. Our data imply that this risk is prevalent in 1 of 20 patients with history of HT use. This is an important message for women considering or already using HT.

76) Hormone-replacement therapy: current thinking Roger A. Lobo
Nature Reviews Endocrinology (2016)

For several decades, the role of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has been debated. Early observational data on HRT showed many benefits, including a reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. More recently, randomized trials, including the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), studying mostly women many years after the the onset of menopause, showed no such benefit and, indeed, an increased risk of CHD and breast cancer, which led to an abrupt decrease in the use of HRT. Subsequent reanalyzes of data from the WHI with age stratification, newer randomized and observational data and several meta-analyses now consistently show reductions in CHD and mortality when HRT is initiated soon after menopause. HRT also significantly decreases the incidence of various symptoms of menopause and the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and improves quality of life. In younger healthy women (aged 50–60 years), the risk–benefit balance is positive for using HRT, with risks considered rare. As no validated primary prevention strategies are available for younger women (<60 years of age), other than lifestyle management, some consideration might be given to HRT as a prevention strategy as treatment can reduce CHD and all-cause mortality. Although HRT should be primarily oestrogen-based, no particular HRT regimen can be advocated.

77)  Practical implementation tips hormone replacement therapy Claire Bellone and Nick Panay 2016  practical-implementation-tips-hormone-replacement-therapy-claire-bellone-and-nick-panay-2016

link to this articlce: http://wp.me/p3gFbV-3Zs

Jeffrey Dach MD
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Summary
Preventing Coronary Artery Disease with Bioidentical Hormones
Article Name
Preventing Coronary Artery Disease with Bioidentical Hormones
Description
Preventing Coronary Artery Disease with Bioidentical Hormones
Author
Jeffrey Dach MD