Low Level Laser Medicine of the Future, Part One
A Patient with Severe Degenerative Arthritis
My wife’s close friend, Carol, has such severe degenerative arthritis of the knee, she was offered a knee replacement by her orthopedic surgeon. Carol’s MRI scan showed severe thinning and destruction of knee joint cartilage, and fluid in the joint space. At a recent medical meeting, we learned of the low level laser device for knee arthritis, so we decided to try it on Carol’s knee.
Low Level Laser for the Knee
We gave Carol daily laser treatments to the knee, and she reported prompt improvement. The inflammation and pain in the knee subsided. The knee joint replacement operation offered by the orthopedic surgeon was no longer needed.
What is Low Level Laser? And Why Haven’t I Heard About It?
You are probably thinking, “if low level laser is so great, why haven’t I heard about it”? The answer is that the FDA, working on behalf of the drug industry, has been diligently suppressing information about it. The device competes with the drug industry by relieving pain and inflammation without drugs.
What Are Low Level Lasers ?
Invented in 1967, LASER stands for Light Amplification and Stimulated Emission. This device produces coherent light, meaning In-Phase and Same Frequency light. Coherent Light differs from light from the sun or a light bulb, which is incoherent light “out of phase”, with differing light frequencies. Unlike incoherent light, coherent light from lasers can penetrate through soft tissues, delivering light energy to deeper tissues.
Since invention of the laser in 1967, laser devices have become commonplace in medical, industrial and even household uses. For example, there are low level lasers in your CD player, in the supermarket barcode reader, and in your optical mouse. Low level lasers for personal medical use are also available, approved as safe by the FDA, and available for sale to the public without a prescription. These devices can be ordered on-line.
Of course, we make the important distinction between safe low energy lasers and the more dangerous high energy lasers which can cut through metal. Medical lasers are used by surgeons to cut tissue in the operating room. High Energy Lasers are obviously dangerous and require more regulation.
Energy- Where Does It Come From ? Photosynthesis from Light
All energy in living organisms comes from light energy (from the sun) harnessed by photosynthesis. In animals and humans, we consume food consisting of plant material which our bodies convert to energy. The energy resides in the plant as a double bond in a carbon molecule, and the chemical reaction which liberates the energy is called “oxidation”.
Powering our Cars and Homes with “Fossil Fuel”
This same oxidation reaction provides us with energy from “fossil fuel” such as coal, oil and gasoline, another source of photosynthetic energy stored up in plants. An “oxidative” chemical reaction occurs when we use fossil fuel, and “burn” a log in the fire place, or run our car engine with gasoline.
The Proto-Porphyrin Ring- This Absorbs Light Energy
Left Image: Proto-porphyrin Basic Ring Structure – notice the four central nitrogen atoms. This structure absorbs light and is present as hemoglobin, chlorophyll, and all cytochromes. Versions of this ring containing central metal atoms such as Fe , Mg and Cu enhance the ability to absorb light energy.
How Our Cells Make Energy
Normally, the mitochondria in trillions of our cells make energy from the food we eat. As mentioned above, the energy is stored in the carbon double bond, an energy source liberated by a chemical reaction known as oxidation. In this reaction, oxygen is combined with carbon to liberate energy stored in double bonds. Another example of oxidation is burning a log in the fireplace. Carbon in the log is combined with oxygen in the air to liberate energy as light and heat, and carbon dioxide and water are released as by-products.
The Mitochondria – Cellular Energy Production
Photosynthesis in Mitochondria ?
Another dormant pathway of energy production also exists. Our mitochondria retain the ability to absorb energy from light. The more primitive machinery of “photosynthesis” lies dormant in mitochondria, ready to be re-awakened. The mitochondria can absorb and utilize energy directly from light photons in the infrared spectrum. This machinery is very similar to photosynthesis of plants and bacteria.
Living Organisms Absorb and Utilize Light Energy – Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis in Plants
We are all familiar with photosynthesis in plants, the ability convert sunlight into usable energy. Remarkably, our own m mitochondria have a dormant pathway for photosynthesis, this ability to absorb energy from light. Mitochondria reside in darkness deep inside the body, so the photosynthetic pathways are not normally in use. These pathways are waiting to be re-awakened by light photons of the red and infrared spectrum.
Leafy Green Color of Plants
The leafy green color of plants comes from chlorophyll, the light absorptive molecule. The chemical structure of chlorophyll is strikingly similar to hemoglobin. Both contain a proto-porphyrin ring, and a central metal atom. Chlorophyll contains magnesium (Mg) in the center. Hemoglobin contains iron (Fe), and Cytochrome C oxidase contains both Fe and Copper.
Cytochrome C Oxidase in Mitochondria
Left Image : Chemical structure of Cytochrome C Oxidase in the mitochondria. Notice similarity of ring structure to chlorophyll. Notice the central Magnesium atom has been replace with a central Iron (Fe) atom. There is also a copper (Cu) add-on at top. This structure is excellent for absorption of light energy.
Cytochromes Absorb Light
Mitochondria contain light absorbing compounds called cytochromes which contain the same proto-porphyrin ring structure as chlorophyll. Recent studies show that light photons are absorbed in the mitochondria by a protein called cytochrome c oxidase, a key player in mitochondrial energy production.
Cytochrome C oxidase is a large porphryn ring enclosing two central iron, and two copper molecules. These metals are the business end of the molecule, absorbing the electromagnetic radiation at peak frequency of 630-670 nanometers, red light.
Once the outer electrons of the central metal atom absorbs light energy, these electrons transition into a high-energy state by moving to higher-energy orbitals. This increased energy spills out as ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, the final product, the currency of cellular energy. Thus we have a process of converting light energy to usable cellular ATP. Remarkably, this pathweay is similar to photosynthesis in plants and bacteria.
The Low Level Laser Delivers Light to Deeper Tissues
Thanks to modern technology which has invented low level laser devices, it is now possible to deliver photon energy to mitochondria in the deeper areas of the body such as joints, the spine and brain. This application of light energy to areas normally kept in darkness “energizes” the mitochondria, and activates a healing process.
Only the First Step in the Healing Process
However, mitochondrial light absorption and energy production is only the first step in the healing process which triggers released nitric oxide, enhanced microcirculation, and activation of fibroblasts and macrophages as part of the healing cascade. The light absorption process in mitochondria upregulates hundred of genes involved in transcription of growth and proliferation factors such as nuclear factor kappa beta, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), and the JNK gene is activated as well with promoted phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) expressions. Absorption of the light energy emanating from the laser device initiates a healing reaction in the tissues. This is beneficial in various medical applications discussed in part two of this series. For Part Two Click Here For Part Three Click Here
Links and References
Chemical & Engineering News. March 19, 2007 Volume 85, Number 12 p. 13
Enzyme Catalysis Electron-Starved Enzyme Cytochrome c oxidase model mimics natural electron-limited conditions SChematic model of cytochrome C oxidase
increases ATP in lymphocytes
5) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18922088 Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Oct;26(5):451-3. Intracellular ATP level increases in lymphocytes irradiated with infrared laser light of wavelength 904 nm. Benedicenti S, Pepe IM, Angiero F, Benedicenti A. Source Department of Medical Science, Dentistry, and Biophysics, University of Genoa, Milan, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Red and near-infrared laser irradiation is reported to have a range of biological effects on cultured cells and different tissues, leading to the hypothesis that laser light can affect energy metabolism. Increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis has been reported in cultured cells and rat brain tissue after irradiation at 632.8 nm and 830 nm, respectively. This study investigated whether diode pulsed laser irradiation enhances ATP production in lymphocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aliquots (500 microL) of an extract of cultured lymphocytes of the Molt-4 cell line were irradiated with diode laser light (lambda = 904 nm, pulsed mode, 6 kHz frequency) with an average emission power of 10 mW for 60 min. A Spectra Physics M404 power meter was used to measure light intensity. Controls were treated similarly but not irradiated. The amount of ATP was measured by the luciferin-luciferase bioluminescent assay. RESULTS: The amount of ATP in irradiated cell cultures was 10.79 +/- 0.15 microg/L (SD; n = 10), and in non-irradiated cell cultures it was 8.81 +/- 0.13 microg/L (SD; n = 10).
The average percentage increase of irradiated versus control cell cultures was about 22.4% +/- 0.56% SD (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This significant increase is probably due to laser irradiation; it cannot be attributed to any thermal effect, as the temperature during irradiation was maintained at 37.0 degrees +/- 0.5 degrees C. Thus the therapeutic effects of the biostimulating power of this type of laser are identified and its indications may be expanded. Increases nitric oxide
Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Oct;26(5):443-9. Role of nitric oxide in the visible light-induced rapid increase of human skin microcirculation at the local and systemic levels: II. healthy volunteers. Samoilova KA, Zhevago NA, Petrishchev NN, Zimin AA. Source Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. email@example.com Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the skin microcirculation increase seen in healthy volunteers after a single exposure to polychromatic visible (pVIS) light, and to prove the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of this effect.
BACKGROUND DATA: Improvement of microcirculation is one of the most important effects of laser and pVIS light therapy; however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. A main role in the regulation of vascular tone is known to be played by NO. It is produced by NO-synthase (NOS) located in membranes of many cells, including endothelial and blood cells. NOS, a biopteroflavohemoprotein, absorbs pVIS light, resulting in its activation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The central area of the dorsal side of the right hand (24 cm2) of 42 volunteers was irradiated for 5 min with pVIS light from a Q-light (385-750 nm, 95% polarization, 40 mW/cm2, 12 J/cm2). Then for 90 min, the blood flow rate (Qas) was measured eight times, both in the area of the irradiation (local effect) and in the non-irradiated left hand (systemic effect) by using a high-frequency ultrasound Doppler device, recording Qas in human skin to a depth up to 5 mm. In the central area of the right hand of 14 volunteers an NOS inhibitor, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.1% solution), was iontophoretically administered prior to exposure, whereas in 10 other subjects it was administered to the left hand with subsequent exposure of the right hand.
RESULTS: As soon as 2 min after exposure, Qas in the irradiated area rose on average by 32%, and in 20 min by 45%; it then decreased and in 90 min returned to the initial level. A statistically significant Qas increase in the non-irradiated hand was recorded in 5 min (+9%), and in 20 min it reached a maximum level (+39%), and 90 min later it decreased to the initial values. The presence of L-NMMA in the light-exposed area completely blocked the photoinduced rise of microcirculation, both in the irradiated and in non-irradiated hand; however, its administration to the non-irradiated hand did not prevent these effects.
CONCLUSION: The increase in skin microcirculation produced by pVIS light at the local and systemic levels is due to activation of NO synthesis in the irradiated area.
full text Free Mechanism of Benefits of Low Level Lasers-
Activates Mitochondrial respiration-
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22453. Epub 2011 Jul 21. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chen AC, Arany PR, Huang YY, Tomkinson EM, Sharma SK, Kharkwal GB, Saleem T, Mooney D, Yull FE, Blackwell TS, Hamblin MR. Source Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. BACKGROUND: Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT), the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2) and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour) by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.
FUll text- nice intro and review by Harvard prof
Lasers Surg Med. 2010 August; 42(6): 447–449.
Introduction to Experimental and Clinical Studies Using Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) Michael R. Hamblin, PhD, Associate Professor Michael R. Hamblin, Harvard Medical School; *Correspondence to: Michael R Hamblin, PhD, Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School
Photoceutical for stem cell growth and regeneration
From a Stem Cell COmpany:
J Transl Med. 2010; 8: 16. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD
Feng Lin,#1 Steven F Josephs,#1 Doru T Alexandrescu,#2 Famela Ramos,1 Vladimir Bogin,3 Vincent Gammill,4 Constantin A Dasanu,5 Rosalia De Necochea-Campion,6 Amit N Patel,7 Ewa Carrier,6 and David R Kooscorresponding author1
The medical use of low level laser (LLL) irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a “photoceutical” for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed. “A pubmed search for “low level laser therapy” yields more than 1700 results, yet before stumbling across this concept, none of us, or our advisors, have ever heard of this area of medicine.”
————————— Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta ————————–
THE BIOLOGY OF NUCLEAR FACTOR KAPPA BETA (NFkB IN HEALTH AND PATHOLOGY by Carlos Kusano Bucalen Ferrari, Biomedical Research Group, Institute of Biological and Health Sciences (ICBS), “Campus Universitário do Araguaia”, “Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso” (UFMT), Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2004 Jul;82(7):434-48. Epub 2004 Jun 3.
Nuclear factor-kappaB: its role in health and disease.
Kumar A, Takada Y, Boriek AM, Aggarwal BB. Source Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappa is a major transcription factor that plays an essential role in several aspects of human health including the development of innate and adaptive immunity. The dysregulation of NF-kappaB is associated with many disease states such as AIDS, atherosclerosis, asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, muscular dystrophy, stroke, and viral infections. Recent evidence also suggests that the dysfunction of NF-kappaB is a major mediator of some human genetic disorders. Appropriate regulation and control of NF-kappaB activity, which can be achieved by gene modification or pharmacological strategies, would provide a potential approach for the management of NF-kappaB related human diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of NF-kappaB and its possible role as a target of therapeutic intervention
———- Q LAser dr Lytle _—————-
“Use Mode 1 to re-energize muscle, ligament and tendon cells for healing wounds and injuries or for reducing pain and inflammation; Mode 1 also benefits tendonitis, arthritis, burns, sprains, cuts, bruises, muscle pulls, sore throat, and any pain or inflammation.” • “Use Mode 2 to re-energize brain and heart cells and to normalize brain neuropeptides and heart cell energy.” • “Use Mode 3 as a multi-organ cell re-energizer that cycles through 29 different frequencies proven effective and beneficial for healing, and to benefit inflammation or disorders of all internal, and for the treatment of any unknown condition.” [Note: The proprioceptive points are (1) just in front of the ear over the TMJ, (2) under the angle of the jaw, (3) two inches below the collar bone, and (4) one inch up from the rounded angle of the shoulder blade (scapula).]
OSTEOARTHRITIS and the LOW LEVEL LASER
A Transcript of Dr. Lytle’s webinar April 2010
(runtime 59:03) Dr. Irina: Why did you choose osteoarthritis as the basis of your first FDA clinical trials? What were the results of the trials? And we get the exciting news\
16) www.21centurydoc.com/tag/soft-laser21st Century Doc – 21st Century Medicine at your Fingertips
Electrotherapeutic DevicesPrinciples, Design, and Applications ——————–
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 95 (2009) 89–92
Evaluation of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in muscle healing by low-level laser therapy
Paulo C.L. Silveira a,*, Luciano Acordi da Silva a, Daiane B. Fraga b, Tiago P. Freitas b, Emilio L. Streck b, Ricardo Pinho a Background: Recent studies demonstrate that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) modulates many biochemical processes, especially the decrease of muscle injures, the increase in mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis for accelerating the healing process. Objective: In this work, we evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, III and IV and succinate dehydrogenase activities after traumatic muscular injury. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6): sham (uninjured muscle), muscle injury without treatment, muscle injury with LLLT (AsGa) 5 J/cm2. Gastrocnemius injury was induced by a single blunt-impact trauma. LLLT was used 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after muscle- trauma.
Results: Our results showed that the activities of complex II and succinate dehydrogenase after 5 days of muscular lesion were significantly increased when compared to the control group. Moreover, our results showed that LLLT significantly increased the activities of complexes I, II, III, IV and succinate dehydrogenase, when compared to the group of injured muscle without treatment.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the treatment with low-level laser may induce an increase in ATP synthesis, and that this may accelerate the muscle healing process.
Formerly Nonlinearity in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine Copyright © 2009 University of Massachusetts
BIPHASIC DOSE RESPONSE IN LOW LEVEL LIGHT THERAPY Ying-Ying Huang Michael R. Hamblin, BAR 414, Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 40 Blossom Street, Boston,
20) MECHANISMS OF LOW LEVEL LIGHT THERAPY Michael R. Hamblin Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, BAR 414 Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital 40 Blossom Street, Boston MA 02114
Biomedical Optics & Medical Imaging Low-level laser therapy: an emerging clinical paradigm
Ying-Ying Huang, Michael Hamblin, and Aaron C.-H. Chen 9 July 2009, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200906.1669
Improved understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms is broadening the technique’s mainstream use for many ailments. 9 July 2009, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200906.1669
22) www.molecularneurodegeneration.com/content/4/1/26 Reduced axonal transport in Parkinson’s disease cybrid neurites is restored by light therapy Patricia A Trimmer1*, Kathleen M Schwartz1, M Kathleen Borland1, Luis De Taboada2, Jackson Streeter2 and Uri Oron3
The NeuroThera® Laser System is under development for the treatment of ischemic stroke and is not approved for sale or distribution in the United States or internationally. The NeuroThera® Laser System is an investigational device that seeks to improve neurological outcomes via noninvasive delivery of near-infrared (NIR) laser energy called Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) into the brain. The system consists of a moveable console, a fiber optic cable, and a handpiece. A trained clinician uses the handpiece to direct the TLT to twenty predetermined treatment sites on the patient’s scalp. The total procedure time is approximately 2-3 hours. The Company believes that the NeuroThera® Laser System may offer a compelling option for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke up to twenty-four hours following onset of stroke symptoms.
J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Aug;127(8):2048-57. Epub 2007 Apr 19. Helium-neon laser irradiation stimulates cell proliferation through photostimulat ory effects in mitochondria. Hu WP, Wang JJ, Yu CL, Lan CC, Chen GS, Yu HS. Source Faculty of Biotechnology and Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Abstract Previous reports have shown that cellular functions could be influenced by visual light (400-700 nm). Recent evidence indicates that cellular proliferation could be triggered by the interaction of a helium-neon laser (He-Ne laser, 632.8 nm) with the mitochondrial photoacceptor-cytochrome c oxidase.
Our previous studies demonstrated that He-Ne irradiation induced an increase in cell proliferation, but not migration, in the melanoma cell line A2058 cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in photostimulatory effects induced by an He-Ne laser. Using the A2058 cell as a model for cell proliferation, the photobiologic effects induced by an He-Ne laser were studied. He-Ne irradiation immediately induced an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(mt)), ATP, and cAMP via enhanced cytochrome c oxidase activity and promoted phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) expressions. He-Ne irradiation-induced A2058 cell proliferation was significantly abrogated by the addition of delta psi(mt) and JNK inhibitors. Moreover, treatment with an He-Ne laser resulted in delayed effects on IL-8 and transforming growth factor-beta1 release from A2058 cells.
These results suggest that He-Ne irradiation elicits photostimulatory effects in mitochondria processes, which involve JNK/AP-1 activation and enhanced growth factor release, and ultimately lead to A2058 cell proliferation.
March 3, 2011 Robert L. Lytle, DDS, PhD President, 2035, Inc.
Managing Limited Partner, QLaser Healing Light LP 520 Kansas City Street, Suite 100 Rapid City, South Dakota 57701
Re: K080513 Trade/Device Name: QLaser System Regulation Number: 21 CFR 890.5500 Regulation Name: Infrared lamp Regulatory Class: II Product Code: NHN Dated: January 9, 2009 Received: January 12, 2009
RianCorp has completed the only randomised double blind clinical trial testing the effects of LLLT on lymphoedema/lymphedema in the world.7 Fleet St, Richmond, South Australia 5033 The LTU-904 models are infra-red lasers operating at a wavelength of 904 nanometers. This invisible wavelength penetrates deeply into tissue (much deeper than the often used red laser operating in the visible red region).
29) Photomedicine and Laser Surgery Volume 27, Number 3, 2009 ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Pp. 379–380 Guest Editorial*. The Potential of Light Therapy for Central Nervous System Injury and Disease Juanita J. Anders, Ph.D. Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences 4301 Jones Bridge Rd. Bethesda, MD 20814 Juanita J. Anders
Absorption measurements of a cell monolayer relevant to phototherapy: Reduction of cytochrome c oxidase under near IR radiation Tiina I. Karu a,*, Lydmila V. Pyatibrat a, Sergei F. Kolyakov b, Natalya I. Afanasyeva c
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 81 (2005) 98–106 a Institute of Laser and Information Technologies of Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Pionerskaya Street 2, Moscow Region 142190, Russian Federation b Institute of Spectroscopy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190, Russian Federation c Spectrooptical Sensing Inc., Portland, OR 97205, USA Received 26 April 2005; accepted 20 July 2005
Phototherapy uses monochromatic light in the optical region of 600–1000 nm to treat in a non-destructive and non-thermal fashion various soft-tissue and neurological conditions. This kind of treatment is based on the ability of light red-to-near IR to alter cellular metabolism as a result of its being absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase. To further investigate the involvement of cytochrome c oxidase as a photoacceptor in the alteration of the cellular metabolism,
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