Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis with Normal TSH, When to Treat ?
A 15 year old girl in high school arrived to my office with her mother. She carried the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. Her laboratory studies showed a TSH within the normal range, with elevated thyroid antibodies. The thyroid antibodies were markedly elevated (anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase TPO were 425 IU/mL and 350 IU/mL. Her thyroid gland was moderately enlarged, indicating Goiter. Additional laboratory testing showed low vitamin D3 and low vitamin B12 levels.
Above Left Image: Mother and Daughter by Henri-François Riesener (1767–1828) oil on canvas, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
This young lady had previously seen multiple endocrinologists, all of whom declined to give thyroid medication, saying it was not needed. This decision, of course, was based on her normal TSH. All the doctors said they will wait and give thyroid medication at some future time when the TSH rises above the lab range, which will then serve as indicator for low thyroid function requiring treatment.
Patient is Symptomatic
In spite of the TSH in the normal range, this 15 year old girl was symptomatic with menstrual irregularities, mood disorders, weight gain, and acne. Not to mention she consumed a stead diet of junk food and carbonated sodas with high fructose corn syrup.
Another Error in Endocrinology
My previous newsletter entitled Errors in Modern Endocrinology, discussed a number of errors endocrinologists commonly make. This is another one of them, NOT TREATING the Euthyroid Hashimotos patient , i.e. the Hashimotos patient with a TSH in the normal range. This is an obvious error in the practice of modern endocrinology.
Treating the Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Patient
In my office, we make a point of starting the Euthyroid Hashimoto’s patients on thyroid medication right away. We do not wait. This is a practice supported by massive numbers of studies published in the endocrinology medical literature, the same medical literature your endocrinologist should be reading to keep up to date in his field.(1-6)
The Endocrinology Medical Literature, What Does It Say ?
In 2013, Dr Katarzyna Korzeniowska found that thyroid medication (in this case, L-thyroxine) stabilizes autoimmune inflammatory process in euthyroid nongoitrous children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Dr. Korzeniowska writes that treatment with L-thyroxine should be started right away. She writes:
treatment with L-T4 [L thyroxine] in euthyroid pediatric patients with T1DM [type one diabetes] and AIT [auto imune thyroid ] stabilizes autoimmune inflammation in the thyroid gland and is to be recommended as soon as the diagnosis is established….To sum up, our findings also indicate that the treatment of patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3a who are euthyroid or subclinically hypothyroid is to be recommended. This treatment needs to be started as soon as Hashimoto’s disease is diagnosed. endquote (1)
Lymphocytic Infiltration of Thyroid Gland in Hashimotos Thyroid Disease
Above image: Hashimotos Thyroiditis Histology Showing Lymphocytic infiltration (black arrows) in thyroid gland courtesy of wikimedia commons
In 2001, Dr. Padberg published a study in Thyroid, the official journal of the American Thyroid Association.(2) Dr Padberg studied 21 Euthyroid Hashimotos patients for one year. Half were treated with L-thyroxine and the other half untreated. Healthy controls were used for comparison. (2). Dr Padberg remarks that:
Studies in animal models of spontaneous Hashimoto’s autoimmune thyroiditis (HT) show that prophylactic treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) can reduce incidence and degree of lymphocytic infiltration in HT. endquote (2)
Dr Padberg found considerable benefit after one year of treatment with L-Thyroxine. The TPO Antibody levels and B lymphocytes declined. Dr. Padberg writes:
After 1 year of therapy with LT4, TPO-Abs and B lymphocytes decreased significantly only in the treated group of euthyroid patients with HT [Hashimotos Thyroiditis] … In contrast, TPO-Abs levels did not change or even increased in untreated euthyroid patients with HT. .. Prophylactic treatment of euthyroid patients with HT reduced both serological and cellular markers of autoimmune thyroiditis. Therefore, prophylactic LT4 treatment might be useful to stop the progression or even manifestation of the disease. endquote (2)
In 2008, Dr Matthias Schmidt published in Thyroid a retrospective study of 38 patients with Hashimotos thyroid disease taking L thyroxine long term. 92% of the patients had a decrease in TPO antibody levels with a mean decrease of 8% after 3 months and 45% decrease after one year. Dr Schmidt writes:
The mean decrease after 3 months was 8%, and after 1 year it was 45%. Five years after the first value, TPO-Ab levels were 1456 +/- 1219 IU/mL, a decrease of 70%. (3)
In 2005 Dr Aksoy published a study in Journal of Endocrinology of 33 patients with euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis followed over 15 months. Half received prophylactic L-thyroxine treatment and the other half had no treatment. Dr Aksoy found considerable benefit both in serological markers of thyroid function and auto-immunity, as well as thyroid volume only in the L-thyroxine treated group, and he recommended prophylactic (preventive) treatment for euthyroid hashimotos patients: Dr Aksoy writes:
After 15 months of L-thyroxine treatment, there was a significant increase in free T4 and a significant decrease in TSH and anti-thyroglobulin antibody anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels. CD8+ cell counts increased in both groups, CD4/CD8 levels decreased significantly because of the increase in CD8+ cell count levels. Though there was no change in cytological findings, ultrasonography showed a decrease in thyroid volume in L-thyroxine receiving patients whereas an increase was detected in patients who were followed without treatment. In conclusion, prophylactic thyroid hormone therapy can be used in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis even if they are euthyroid.(4)
Combinng L-Thyroxine with Selenium
In 2011, Dr Robert Krysiak published his study in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism on on the beneficial effect of combining both levothyroxine and selenomethionine (selenium) for reducing severity of auto-immune disease in women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
This was a randomized clinical trial of 170 previously untreated euthyroid hashimotos women and 41 matched healthy subjects. Half the participants received a 6-month treatment with L-thyroxine plus selenomethionine, and half a placebo. They found considerable reduction in inflammatory markers such as cytokines and CRP, with both agents, L-thyroxine plus selenomethionine, working synergistically for even greater benefit. Dr Robert Krysiak writes:
The decrease in cytokine release and in plasma CRP levels was strongest when both drugs were given together…levothyroxine and selenomethionine exhibit a similar systemic antiinflammatory effect in euthyroid females with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This action, which correlates with a reduction in thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, may be associated with clinical benefits in the prevention and management of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, particularly in subjects receiving both agents. (5)
IVF for Euthyroid Hashimotos Patients
In 2009, Dr Alberto Revelli, a reproductive endocrinologist, published his study in Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology finding better IVF (in vitro fertilization) outcomes in Euthyroid Hashimotos patients when treated with combination L-Thyroxine plus anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and prednisone.(6) Dr Revelli found that euthyroid hashimotos patients had poorer IVF results. However when treated with L-thyroxine, the IVF results improved to equal that of normal females (without ATA – anti-thyroid antibodies). He writes:
Anti-thyroid antibodies (ATA), even if not associated with thyroid dysfunction, are suspected to cause poorer outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)…The prevalence of ATA [Auto-Immune Thyroid Antibodies] among euthyroid, infertile patients was 10.5%, similar to the one reported in euthyroid women between 18 and 45 years. ATA+ patients [with thyroid auto antibodies] who did not receive any adjuvant treatment showed significantly poorer ovarian responsiveness to stimulation and IVF results than controls. ATA+ patients receiving LT [L-thyroxine] responded better to ovarian stimulation, but had IVF results as poor as untreated ATA+ women…Patients receiving LT+ASA+P had significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates than untreated ATA+ patients (PR/ET 25.6% and IR 17.7% vs. PR/ET 7.5% and IR 4.7%, respectively), and overall IVF results comparable to patients without ATA (PR/ET 32.8% and IR 19%).
Observations in Our Office
Over the years of treating Hashimotos patients, we have seen anti-thyroid antibody levels decline in most patients under treatment with TSH suppressive doses of thyroid hormone, NDT, natural desiccated thyroid. In my opinion NDT is preferred over L-thyroxine most commonly used by endocrinologists and primary care physicians. Clinical results are better with use of NDT containing both T3 and T4, rather than the T4 only L-thyroxine.
Our treatment protocol for Hashimotos Thyroid patients also includes:
- Gluten Free Diet with elimination of junk food and sodas. (25-28)
- Optimize Vitamin D to upper end of the range. (13-22)
- Selenium Supplementation if found low on blood testing. (8-10)
- B12 testing and supplementation when low. (22)
- Low Dose Iodine supplementation (225-450 mcg per day)
- LDN (low dose naltrexone ) in selected cases. (30-32)
Conclusion: Another Error in Endocrinology is the common practice of NOT TREATING Euthyroid Hashimotos patients with thyroid medication (NDT or Levothyroxine). Such treatment is supported by massive evidence in the medical literature, and is even more beneficial when combined with Selenium, D3, B12 and a Gluten Free Diet.
Update 2022: Link between infection and autoimmune thyroid disease:
El-Zawawy, Hanaa Tarek, et al. “Improving Hashimoto’s thyroiditis by eradicating Blastocystis hominis: Relation to IL-17.” Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 11 (2020): 2042018820907013.
Articles with Related Interest
Errors in Modern Endocrinology
TSH Suppression, Benefits and Adverse Side Effects
Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
Links and References
euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
treatment needs to be started as soon as Hashimoto’s disease is diagnosed.
1) Korzeniowska, Katarzyna, et al. “L-thyroxine stabilizes autoimmune inflammatory process in euthyroid nongoitrous children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus.” Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 5.4 (2013): 240.
Conclusions: The data demonstrate that treatment with L-T4 in euthyroid pediatric patients with T1DM and AIT stabilizes autoimmune inflammation in the thyroid gland and is to be recommended as soon as the diagnosis is established.
To sum up, our findings also indicate that the treatment of patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3a who are euthyroid or subclinically hypothyroid is to be recommended. This treatment needs to be started as soon as Hashimoto’s disease is diagnosed.
Animal models of spontaneous Hashimoto’s autoimmune thyroiditis (HT) show that prophylactic treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) can reduce incidence and degree of lymphocytic infiltration in HT.
2) Padberg, S., et al. “One-year prophylactic treatment of euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients with levothyroxine: is there a benefit?.” Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 11.3 (2001): 249-255.
Studies in animal models of spontaneous Hashimoto’s autoimmune thyroiditis (HT) show that prophylactic treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) can reduce incidence and degree of lymphocytic infiltration in HT. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether there is a benefit of prophylactic treatment with LT4 in patients with euthyroid HT with respect to the progression of the autoimmune process.
Twenty-one patients with euthyroid HT were checked for thyroid function (thyrotropin [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], free thyroxine [FT4]), thyroid volume, antibodies (thyroglobulin [Tg-Ab], thyroid peroxidase [TPO-Ab]), and lymphocyte subsets. Peripheral (PBL) and thyroid-derived lymphocytes (TL) were analyzed by triple color flow cytometry. One-half of the patients with euthyroid HT were treated with LT4 for 1 year (n = 10). The other half (n = 11) were never treated with LT4. TL were obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Thirteen healthy subjects (C) without medical history of thyroid disease served as controls concerning PBL, and patients with nontoxic nodular goiter (NG; n = 10) served as controls concerning TL. Thyroid-derived T-helper cells were found more frequently in euthyroid patients with HT compared to patients with NG (p < 0.01).
After 1 year of therapy with LT4, TPO-Abs and B lymphocytes decreased significantly only in the treated group of euthyroid patients with HT (p < 0.05). In contrast, TPO-Abs levels did not change or even increased in untreated euthyroid patients with HT. Thyroid volume did not differ before and after therapy. Prophylactic treatment of euthyroid patients with HT reduced both serological and cellular markers of autoimmune thyroiditis. Therefore, prophylactic LT4 treatment might be useful to stop the progression or even manifestation of the disease. However, the long-term clinical benefit of prophylactic LT4 therapy in euthyroid patients with HT is yet to be established.
Antibody levels decline in most patients on Levothyroxine
3) Schmidt, Matthias, et al. “Long-term follow-up of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) treated with levothyroxine.” Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 18.7 (2008): 755-760.
Background: A number of studies show that the serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis decline during levothyroxine treatment, but do not provide quantitative data or report the fraction of patients in whom test for TPO-Ab became negative (“normalization percentage”). The objective of the present study was to provide this information.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of TPO-Ab concentrations in 36 women and 2 men (mean age 51 +/- 16 years; range 19-81 years) with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis as defined by the following criteria: elevated plasma TPO-Ab and typical hypoechogenicity of the thyroid in high-resolution sonography at first presentation or during follow-up and low pertechnetate uptake in thyroid scintigraphy. When first studied 17 women and 1 man were not yet taking levothyroxine. The remaining 20 patients were receiving levothyroxine. At initial examination 18 patients had serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations above normal. Results of up to eight (mean = 5.8) measurements obtained over a mean period of 50 months while patients were receiving levothyroxine were analyzed. In addition, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured, and ultrasound of the neck was performed at each follow-up examination.
Results: In terms of TPO-Ab levels, 35 of 38 patients (92%) had a decrease, 2 patients had undulating levels, and 1 patient had an inverse hyperbolic increase in her TPO-Ab levels. In the 35 patients in whom there were decreasing TPO-Ab values, the mean of the first value was 4779 IU/mL with an SD of 4099 IU/mL. The mean decrease after 3 months was 8%, and after 1 year it was 45%. Five years after the first value, TPO-Ab levels were 1456 +/- 1219 IU/mL, a decrease of 70%. TPO-Ab levels became negative, < 100 IU/mL, in only six patients, a normalization percentage of 16%. There were no correlations between changes in thyroid volume and changes in TPO-Ab.
Conclusion: Serum TPO-Ab levels decline in most patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis who are taking levothyroxine, but after a mean of 50 months, TPO-Ab became negative in only a minority of patients.
4) Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan, et al. “Effects of prophylactic thyroid hormone replacement in euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” Endocrine journal 52.3 (2005): 337-343.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most frequent autoimmune thyroid disease. L-thyroxine therapy can reduce the incidence and alleviate the symptoms of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic L-thyroxine treatment on clinical and laboratory findings of patients who were euthyroid at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three patients who had diagnosis of euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis were randomized to two groups, one group received prophylactic L-thyroxine treatment and the other was followed-up without treatment. Initial thyroid function tests, autoantibodies, ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration biopsy and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were similar in the two study groups. After 15 months of L-thyroxine treatment, there was a significant increase in free T4 and a significant decrease in TSH and anti-thyroglobulin antibody anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels. CD8+ cell counts increased in both groups, CD4/CD8 levels decreased significantly because of the increase in CD8+ cell count levels. Though there was no change in cytological findings, ultrasonography showed a decrease in thyroid volume in L-thyroxine receiving patients whereas an increase was detected in patients who were followed without treatment. In conclusion, prophylactic thyroid hormone therapy can be used in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis even if they are euthyroid.
Benefits of Combination Levo and Selenium in Euthyroid Hashimotos pts
5) Krysiak, Robert, and Boguslaw Okopien. “The effect of levothyroxine and selenomethionine on lymphocyte and monocyte cytokine release in women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96.7 (2011): 2206-2215.
Design, setting, participants, and intervention: We conducted a randomized clinical trial involving a group of 170 ambulatory euthyroid women with recently diagnosed and previously untreated Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 41 matched healthy subjects. Participants were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a 6-month treatment with levothyroxine, selenomethionine, levothyroxine plus selenomethionine, or placebo. One hundred sixty-five patients completed the study.
Main outcome measures: Monocyte and lymphocyte release of proinflammatory cytokines and plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed.
Results: Compared with the control subjects, monocytes and lymphocytes of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients released greater amounts of all cytokines studied. Levothyroxine reduced monocyte release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, whereas selenomethionine inhibited lymphocyte release of IL-2, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, which was accompanied by a reduction in plasma CRP levels. The decrease in cytokine release and in plasma CRP levels was strongest when both drugs were given together.
Conclusions: Despite affecting different types of inflammatory cells, levothyroxine and selenomethionine exhibit a similar systemic antiinflammatory effect in euthyroid females with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This action, which correlates with a reduction in thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, may be associated with clinical benefits in the prevention and management of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, particularly in subjects receiving both agents.
6) Revelli, Alberto, et al. “A retrospective study on IVF outcome in euthyroid patients with anti-thyroid antibodies: effects of levothyroxine, acetyl-salicylic acid and prednisolone adjuvant treatments.” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 7.1 (2009): 1-6.
The prevalence of ATA among euthyroid, infertile patients was 10.5%, similar to the one reported in euthyroid women between 18 and 45 years. ATA+ patients who did not receive any adjuvant treatment showed significantly poorer ovarian responsiveness to stimulation and IVF results than controls. ATA+ patients receiving LT responded better to ovarian stimulation, but had IVF results as poor as untreated ATA+ women.
Patients receiving LT+ASA+P had significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates than untreated ATA+ patients (PR/ET 25.6% and IR 17.7% vs. PR/ET 7.5% and IR 4.7%, respectively), and overall IVF results comparable to patients without ATA (PR/ET 32.8% and IR 19%).
These observations suggest that euthyroid ATA+ patients undergoing IVF could have better outcome if given LT+ASA+P as adjuvant treatment. This hypothesis must be verified in further randomized, prospective studies.
7) Dörr, Helmuth G., et al. “Levothyroxine treatment of euthyroid children with autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.” Hormone research in paediatrics 84.4 (2015): 266-274.
Background: Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated.
Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group.
As the main outcome measures, thyroid gland volume (determined by ultrasound) as well as serum levels of TSH, free T4, and antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were assessed every 6 months for 36 months. Results: At the start, the mean thyroid volume (standard deviation score, SDS) was 2.5 in the treatment group and 1.6 in the observation group. There was a constant decline in mean thyroid volume (SDS) from 2.13 (month 12) to 1.12 (month 30) in the treated group, with a delta thyroid volume of -1.01 SDS. In the observation group, the mean delta thyroid volume increased to +0.27 SDS. The change of the delta thyroid volume was statistically significantly different between both groups during the 12- and 30-month time points (p < 0.05). L-T4 had no effect on thyroid function and serum thyroid antibodies. Conclusions: L-T4 treatment can decrease the thyroid volume in euthyroid children with HT, but the effect is limited to a definite time period.
Selenium Reduces Antibody Levels
8) Wichman, Johanna, et al. “Selenium supplementation significantly reduces thyroid autoantibody levels in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Thyroid 26.12 (2016): 1681-1692.
9) Onal, Hasan, et al. “Effects of selenium supplementation in the early stage of autoimmune thyroiditis in childhood: an open-label pilot study.” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 25.7-8 (2012): 639-644.
Results: Serum TPOAb, TgAb, and thyroid echogenicity were unchanged with Se supplementation. A prominent decrease in thyroid volume was noteworthy; 35% of patients showed a thyroid volume regression rate of > or = 30%.
10) Yu, L., et al. “Levothyroxine monotherapy versus levothyroxine and selenium combination therapy in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.” Journal of endocrinological investigation 40.11 (2017): 1243-1250.
11) Pirola, Ilenia, et al. “Selenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.” Endokrynologia Polska 67.6 (2016): 567-571.
12) Fan, Yaofu, et al. “Selenium supplementation for autoimmune thyroiditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” International journal of endocrinology 2014 (2014).
Vitamin D3 Benefits for Hashimotos
13) Piekarska, Małgorzata, et al. “The correlation between vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid function–short review.” Journal of Education, Health and Sport 11.9 (2021): 401-408.
14) Vieira, Inês Henriques, Dírcea Rodrigues, and Isabel Paiva. “Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease—Cause, Consequence, or a Vicious Cycle?.” Nutrients 12.9 (2020): 2791.
15) Koehler, Viktoria F., Natalie Filmann, and W. Alexander Mann. “Vitamin D status and thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis.” Hormone and Metabolic Research 51.12 (2019): 792-797.
16) Mazokopakis, Elias E., et al. “Is vitamin D related to pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” Hell J Nucl Med 18.3 (2015): 222-7.
Results: There was a signicant negative correlation only between serum 25(OH)D levels and anti-TPO levels among all 218 HT patients. Also, antiTPO levels were signicantly higher in 186/218 vitamin D decient HT patients compared to 32/218 HT patients with no vitamin D deciency (364±181IU/mL versus 115.8±37.1IU/mL, P<0.0001). Supplementation of CF in 186 vitamin D decient HT patients caused a signicant decrease (20.3%) in serum anti-TPO levels. Although at the end of the 4 months period of the study body mass index (BMI), serum anti-TG and TSH
levels decreased by 2.2%, 5.3% and 4% respectively, these dierences were not signicant. No changes in the sonographic ndings were observed. Conclusions: The majority (85.3%) of the Greek Caucasian patients with HT studied who lived and worked in Crete had low serum 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated
with serum anti-TPO thyroid antibodies. After 4 months of CF supplementation in the 186 HT patients with vitamin D deciency, a signicant decrease (20.3%) of serum anti-TPO levels was found. These findings suggest that vitamin D deciency may be related to pathogenesis of HT and that its supplementation could contribute to the treatment of patients with HT.
17) Chahardoli, Reza, et al. “Can supplementation with vitamin D modify thyroid autoantibodies (Anti-TPO Ab, Anti-Tg Ab) and thyroid profile (T3, T4, TSH) in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis? A double blind, Randomized clinical trial.” Hormone and Metabolic Research 51.05 (2019): 296-301.
18) Krysiak, Robert, Witold Szkróbka, and Bogusław Okopień. “The effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity in levothyroxine-treated women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and normal vitamin D status.” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 125.04 (2017): 229-233.
Results: There were no significant differences in baseline values between
both study groups. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely correlated
with titers of thyroid antibodies. No changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-
thyroid axis activity and thyroid antibody titers were observed
in vitamin-naïve patients. Vitamin D increased serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin
D, as well as reduced titers of thyroid antibodies. This
effect was more pronounced for thyroid peroxidase than for thyroglobulin
antibodies and correlated with their baseline titers.
Conclusions: Vitamin D preparations may reduce thyroid autoimmunity
in levothyroxine-treated women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and
normal vitamin D status.
19) Koehler, Viktoria F., Natalie Filmann, and W. Alexander Mann. “Vitamin D status and thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis.” Hormone and Metabolic Research 51.12 (2019): 792-797.
20) Fang, Fang, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency is associated with thyroid autoimmunity: results from an epidemiological survey in Tianjin, China.” Endocrine 73.2 (2021): 447-454.
21) Mazokopakis, Elias E., et al. “Is vitamin D related to pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” Hell J Nucl Med 18.3 (2015): 222-7.
Conclusion: The majority (85.3%) of the Greek Caucasian patients with HT studied who lived and worked in Crete had low serum 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with serum anti-TPO thyroid antibodies. After 4 months of CF supplementation in the 186 HT patients with vitamin D deficiency, a significant decrease (20.3%) of serum anti-TPO levels was found. These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be related to pathogenesis of HT and that its supplementation could contribute to the treatment of patients with HT.
D3 and B12 deficiency in Hashimotos
22) Aktaş, Hanife Şerife. “Vitamin B12 and vitamin D levels in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism and their correlation with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.” Medical Principles and Practice 29.4 (2020): 364-370.
Iodine, Selenium, Vitamin D3 Gluten
23) Liontiris, Michael I., and Elias E. Mazokopakis. “A concise review of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and the importance of iodine, selenium, vitamin D and gluten on the autoimmunity and dietary management of HT patients. Points that need more investigation.” Hell J Nucl Med 20.1 (2017): 51-56.
24) Ihnatowicz, Paulina, et al. “The importance of nutritional factors and dietary management of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine 27.2 (2020).
25) Pobłocki, Jakub, et al. “Whether a Gluten-Free Diet Should Be Recommended in Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis or Not?—A 12-Month Follow-Up.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 10.15 (2021): 3240.
During the 12-month follow-up between the CG and the GFDG, no differences
were found in anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies, fT3 or fT4 levels, except a significant reduction in TSH levels in the GFDG. Additionally, performed analysis between individual appointments presented no significant differences in changes in the median concentrations of anti-TPO, anti-TG or fT3, but confirmed a significant decrease in TSH and showed accessory an increase in fT4 after 12 months in GFDG. Statistical analyses performed separately for both groups indicated a constant reduction of anti-TG concentrations in the GFDG. I
26) Krysiak, Robert, Witold Szkróbka, and Bogusław Okopień. “The effect of gluten-free diet on thyroid autoimmunity in drug-naïve women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a pilot study.” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 127.07 (2019): 417-422.
27) Wojtas, Natalia, Lidia Wadolowska, and Elżbieta Bandurska-Stankiewicz. “Evaluation of qualitative dietary protocol (diet4hashi) application in dietary counseling in hashimoto thyroiditis: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.” International journal of environmental research and public health 16.23 (2019): 4841.
28) Agardh, Daniel, et al. “Reduction of tissue transglutaminase autoantibody levels by gluten-free diet is associated with changes in subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease.” Clinical & Experimental Immunology 144.1 (2006): 67-75.
29) Talebi, Sepide, et al. “Trace element status and hypothyroidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Biological trace element research 197.1 (2020): 1-14.
30) Kim, Yoon Hang John. “Case Report: Reversing Hypothyroidism with Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN).” Multiple sclerosis 3: 4.
31) McDermott, Michael T. “Low-dose naltrexone treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.” Management of Patients with Pseudo-Endocrine Disorders. Springer, Cham, 2019. 317-326.
32) Neuman, Daniel L., and Andrea L. Chadwick. “Utilization of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Case Report.” A&A Practice 15.5 (2021): e01475.
33) Hashimoto’s Disease: Your Body Is Not Supposed to Destroy Itself Right?
BY Dana Trentini HypoThyroid MOM
Doctors refuse to treat Hashimoto’s when TSH is normal.
Another major problem is that many traditional doctors refuse to treat patients who test positive for thyroid antibodies, even when they suffer debilitating symptoms, all because their TSH level is “normal”. Unfortunately TSH rules above all else in mainstream medicine when it comes to hypothyroidism. You may have Hashimoto’s disease with elevated thyroid antibodies, yet all because the destruction of your thyroid gland has not YET destroyed enough of your gland yet to trigger an abnormal TSH reading, you are refused treatment and forced to cope with your symptoms. End Quote
34) Özen, Samim, et al. “Clinical course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and effects of levothyroxine therapy on the clinical course of the disease in children and adolescents.” Journal of clinical research in pediatric endocrinology 3.4 (2011): 192.
Levothyroxine therapy may have beneficial effects on the clinical course of the disease and on antibody titers.
Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
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