The Amazing Olive Leaf


The Amazing Olive Leaf

by Jeffrey Dach MD

History of the Olive Tree and Leaf

The Fruit and Leaves of the Olive Tree have been used for thousands of years.  Ancient writings contain abundant references.  An early reference to olive leaf is the appearance of a Dove with the Olive Branch symbolize the end of the Flood and the beginning of “peace” in the story of Noah’s Ark. (Bible)(link)

The medicinal use of Olive Leaf began recently in 1995-1996 with the work of a chemist, William Frederickson who patented his extraction technique. (37) (Patent )

Upper Left Image: Olive tree and leaves , Olive leaf, Olea Europaea courtesy of wikimedia commons.

Beneficial Properties of Olive Leaf Extract

The Olive Leaf extract contains Oleuropein, the major beneficial substance with  antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antihypertensive, and anti-diabetic properties.(9-13)

Nature’s Antibiotic- Antibacterial  and Anti Fungal Effects

Morton Walker calls Olive Leaf extract Nature’s Antibiotic because of anti-bacterial and antifungal properties as demonstrated in a many studies (2-6).  Anti-mycoplasma activity was demonstrated in 2004 (1).

For example, Olive Leaf is a useful agent against chronic sinus infection as well as chronic toenail fungus.  Both may harbor underling fungal or bacterial organisms causing the infection.

Antiviral Activity against Influenza

Antiviral activity is another benefit.  For example, Olive leaf extract may be useful in cases of chronic Herpes infection, and Herpes Zoster as well (shingles).(39)

For those wishing to prevent the common cold, the influenza virus, Olive Leaf extract might prove beneficial because of its anti-viral effect.(7, 16)   Antiviral activity was demonstrated in a 2005 study(7)

Cardiovascular Benefits

Anti-Hypertensive Effects (21-28)

For patients with borderline or mild hypertension, Olive leaf extract has been shown to reduce blood pressure.(21-28)  In one study, Olive leaf extract was compared with the  anti-hypertensive medication Captopril, finding it reduces blood pressure just as well as Captopril, a widely used drug.

Anti-Diabetic (29-30) Anti-lipidemic Effects (34)

For patients concerned about cholesterol and lipids, Olive leaf extract has been found to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and more importantly prevent LDL oxidation.(34)

Neuroprotective (31)

Olive leaf extract was found to be neuroprotective in an animal model of brain injury.(31)


Abundant published medical studies shows an amazing array of health benefits obtained from the humble olive leaf.

For the Online Store:  Olive Leaf Extract from Pure Encapsulations

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314

Links and References

2004 Anti-Mycoplasmal Activity

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4892-4.
Antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol.
Furneri PM, Piperno A, Sajia A, Bisignano G. Department of Microbiological Sciences and Gynecological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans, the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively. The present findings indicate that hydroxytyrosol might be considered as a promising antimicrobial agent for treating human infections; its safety (7) and good bioavailability (10, 19, 20) represent additional advantages for its possible therapeutic use. Therefore, one might speculate that dietary intake of the polyphenols contained in olives and olive oil could reduce the risk of mycoplasmal infection. We believe that mycoplasmas could be an interesting tool to study and better characterize the interaction of hydroxytyrosol with bacteriological membrane.


2001 Antibacterial Activity


FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Apr 20;198(1):9-13.
In vitro antibacterial activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. Bisignano G, Laganà MG, Trombetta D, Arena S, Nostro A, Uccella N, Mazzanti G, Saija A. Source Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.

In the present paper we report the ‘in vitro’ activity of eight aliphatic long-chain aldehydes from olive flavor (hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-eptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) against a number of standard and freshly isolated bacterial strains that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections. The saturated aldehydes characterized in the present study do not exhibit significant antibacterial activity, while the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and show similar activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The effectiveness of the aldehydes under investigation seems to depend not only on the presence of the alpha,beta-double bond, but also on the chain length from the enal group and on the microorganism tested.

2003 Antimicrobial activity of olive leaves -antibacterial and antifungal

Mycoses. 2003 Apr;46(3-4):132-6.
In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.
Markin D, Duek L, Berdicevsky I. Source Department of Microbiology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Abstract We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract.

Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h.

Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas

Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract.

Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction.

These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

2007 antimicrbial activity- combined antibactyerail and antifungal at low concentrations


Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrancosa) leaves.  Authors: Pereira, Ana Paula Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R. Marcelino, F. Valentão, P. Andrade, P.B. Seabra, R.M. Estevinho, Leticia M. Bento, Albino Pereira, J.A. Issue Date: 2007 Publisher: MDPI International Citation: Molecules. ISSN 1420-3049. 12 (2007) p. 1153-1162. Abstract:

We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4’-O-glucoside.

At low concentrations olive leafs extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds.

The unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action obtained in this study for olive leaf extracts is in agreement with that reported by Markin et al. [17]. Nevertheless, we obtained lower IC25 values than the 0.6% described by them. Olive leaves may be useful in cases where prolonged use of antibiotics encourage development of opportunistic infections [26], being especially effective against Klebsiella and Pseudomonas, two bacterial genera which pose a major resistance problem [27].


Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 May;33(5):461-3.

Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.
Sudjana AN, D’Orazio C, Ryan V, Rasool N, Ng J, Islam N, Riley TV, Hammer KA. Discipline of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

2010 antioxidant and antimicrobial

Bioresour Technol. 2010 May;101(10):3751-4.

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract. Lee OH, Lee BY. Source Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam 463-836, Republic of Korea.

Abstract Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics.

These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.


antiviral activity

2005 Antiviral activity Olive Leaf extract


Antiviral Res. 2005 Jun;66(2-3):129-36. Epub 2005 Apr 18.

The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV). Micol V, Caturla N, Pérez-Fons L, Más V, Pérez L, Estepa A. SourceInstituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, E-03202-Elche, Alicante, Spain.

A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively.

Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein accumulation (virucidal effect) in a dose dependent manner when added to cell monolayers 36 h post-infection.

On the other hand, both the LExt and Ole were able to inhibit cell-to-cell membrane fusion induced by VHSV in uninfected cells, suggesting interactions with viral envelope. Therefore, we propose that O. europaea could be used as a potential source of promising natural antivirals, which have demonstrated to lack impact on health and environment. In addition, Ole could be used to design other related antiviral agents. 2010


summary of research up to 2010 on Olive leaf component oleuropein-olive leaf extract (mainly oleuropein)

free article


Sci Pharm. 2010;78(2):133-54.
Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.
Omar SH.Source College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, P.O. Box-31922, Buraidah-51418, Saudi Arabia.

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.


2010 thesis on olive leaf


İzmir Institute of Technology , İzmir, Turkey. by Kerem Kaan AYTUL

Olive leaf is one of the potent source of plant polyphenols having antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral properties due to its rich phenolic content. The most abundant phenolic component of this content is oleuropein which gives the bitter taste to olive and olive oil. In order to utilize oleuropein and other bioactive components within olive leaf effectively enough, they should be extracted from olive leaf. In addition to its antioxidant properties, phenolic compounds within olive leaf extract have shown antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms including; E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio parahaemolyticu (Markin et al., 2003).

Furthermore, OLE affects macrophage function and modulates inflammatory response; those may contribute to activity against infectious agents (Lee-Huang et al., 2003). Although the individual phenolic compounds in olive leaf extract may show strong in vitro activities, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of combined phenolics showed similar or better effects than the individual phenolics (Lee at al. 2010). It had also been previously supported by Pereira et al., (2007) that, extracts may be more beneficial than isolated constituents since a bioactive component can change its properties in the presence of other compounds present in the extract. They also reported the antimicrobial capacity order for several concentrations of OLE as follows; B. cereus ~C. albicans > E. coli> S. aureus> C. neoformans~ K. pneumoniae~ P. aeruginosa> B. subtilis. Markin et al., (2003) also reported that water extract of olive leaf with a concentration of 0.6% (w/v) killed E.coli, Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumonia in 3h exposure. B. subtilis on the other hand was inhibited only when the concentration was increased to 20% (w/v) possibly due to spore forming ability of this species. Sudjana et al., (2009), studied antibacterial activity of olive leaf extract with large variety of bacteria. Results indicated that OLE did not present broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but had appreciable activity on H. pylori and C. jejuni

2012 Olive Tree – Bioactive compounds – Review

10) (full text)
Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3291-340.

Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)-A Review. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N. Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest.

Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet.


olive leaf thorne research (full text)
Alternative Medicine Review Volume 14, Number 1 2009

Olive Leaf Introduction – Olive leaf from Olea europaea, the olive tree, is native to the Mediterranean and has been known for its medicinal properties since ancient times.

t is the first botanical noted in the Bible, where it is described in Ezekiel 47:12, “The fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine.” In the last century, extracts of olive leaf have been studied in both animals and humans and have been found to exhibit strong antimicrobial properties against viruses, bacteria, yeast, and parasites. Olive leaf extract also has numerous cardiovascular benefits, some hypoglycemic activity, and possesses antioxidant activity.


Morton Walker on Olive Leaf Extract Townsend Letter

Olive Leaf Extract as a Main Therapy in the Antimicrobial Supermarket
Marton Walker Townsend Letter May 2001


seagate olive leaf extract Olive Leaf Extract 90 Capsules 450 mg by Seagate – by Seagate Olive Leaf Extract Available on Amazon


Book by Morton Walker on Amazon
13) Olive Leaf Extract

Olive Leaf Extract [Mass Market Paperback] Morton Walker (Author) on Amazon Olive leaf extract is truly a miraculous natural antibiotic that cures many diseases. In this book the author lists 137 infectious diseases that can be conquered by taking olive leaf extract. We know that olive oil is good for us but most people don’t know that olive leaf extract is antifungal, antiparasitic, antimicrobial and antiviral. It does however not destroy friendly gut bacteria although it destroys bad bacteria, parasites and viruses.

Some of the illnesses discussed in this book include:
Chronic fatigue syndrome, pneumonia, psoriasis, candidiasis, ear infections, ulcers, heart trouble, heartburn, chronic joint pains, angina, fibromyalgia, sinus conditions, bladder infection, colds, flu, hypothyroidism and many viral infections. Anyone with AIDS, cancer or herpes should also read this book for more information.

In his book, Olive Leaf Extract, Morton Walker states:

“Based on my research, I am convinced that olive leaf extract is destined to become the most useful, wide-spectrum anti-microbial herbal ingredient of the twenty-first century!”


East Park Research  – Olive Leaf

14)  Antimicrobial Activity of d-Lenolate® east park research olive leaf extract patented extract Antimicrobial activity of d-lenolate Andy Phui U Nevada 2010

15) Study: Therapeutic Effect of d-Lenolate® Against Experimental Infections in Immuno-compromised Mice Citation: 2000. Sumiaki Tsuru, Akihito Nagae, Takuya Ohta, Sakae Ohtake, Machio Ibusuki, Masatosi Kaneko. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 15:127-138. Lenolate Against Experimental Infections in Immunocompromised Mice Sumiaki Tsuru J of Orthomolecular Med 2000

(full text)

Review of Enhanced Resistance against Influenza Virus by Treatment with Dietary Supplement d-Lenolate® in Neutropenic Mice Induced by Cyclophosphamide. 2001. Sumiaki Tsuru, Machio Ibusuki, Sakae Ohtake, Yoshimi Umezawa, and Masatoshi Kaneko. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 16:102-114.

———– !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

free book on olive leaf


Olive Leaf Extract Potent Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Agent
Researched by Michele Hansen, N.D. Andrew Verity N.D. Dip H. Dip N. Dip Irid. Copyright 2002 Published in Australia by Goldgolf Pty. Ltd.

few scientific researchers embarked on serious studies into the herb until the mid 1990’s, since when the most active compounds contained within the olive leaf have been revealed. This earlier lack of interest was probably due to the development of potent antibiotics such as penicillin, which up until this past decade seemed like panaceas for every microbe under the sun.

Olive leaf extract is Nature’s anti-microbial agent.

In his information booklet ‘Olive Leaf Extract’, Dr. Morton Walker, DPM and professional medical journalist, lists 126 pathological microbes which olive leaf extract acts against – many of which are notoriously antibiotic-resistant. Some of these diseases include Chlamydia, E. Coli, Giardia, Hepatitis A, B, and C, Influenza, Lyme disease, Meningitis (both viral and bacterial), Pneumonia, Shingles, Shigella (a form of dysentery) and Vaginitis. Olive leaf extract appears to be more efficacious than any other natural antibiotic, both in broad spectrum capabilities and in potency Direct stimulation of phagocytosis is an immune system response to microbes of all types. This multifaceted approach is why Olive Leaf Extract is so efficacious against so many diseases that involve the immune system. But other diseases also respond to the extract.

Coronary artery disease seems to respond well to its use.

Laboratory and preliminary clinical studies indicate that extract of olive leaf alleviates numerous disorders related to insufficient arterial blood flow, including angina pectoris and intermittent claudication (lameness).

It helps eliminate atrial fibrillation (arrhythmia), lowers high blood pressure, and inhibits LDL cholesterol from oxidising. the Major Discovery In the early 1990s, Fredrickson made a number of significant discoveries about the oleuropein in olive leaf. These are recorded in his book ‘The Tree of Life’, which is in the Library of Congress. He discovered that the human body has two enzymes (esteraise and beta-glucosidase) that convert oleuropein to elolenic acid, a powerful compound that kills a wide range of bacteria.

Elolenic acid has one left handed (levorotatory) and seven right handed (dextorotatory) molecules – the right handed is the mirror image of the left. It is the right handed form of elolenic acid that kills the bad bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts, etc. As a result of Fredrickson’s discoveries, this compound is fast becoming a rising star in the world of nutritional knowledge and healing. Since the process of converting oleuropein to elolenic acid is a natural process, which occurs in the body, the process cannot be patented.


Australian olive leaf Book Barlean’s Olive Leaf Complex

Olive leaf extract – nature’s antibiotic by Robin JAsko Energy Times )ct 1999 ———————————

The Miracle of the Olive Leaf by Luana Lei

Since Biblical times we have heard about the olive branch and reference to the olive tree as the “Tree of Life.” This Bible reference has more meaning after reading a book by Dr. Morton Walker entitled Nature’s Antibiotic, Olive Leaf Extract. I was astonished to learn the amazing and phenomenal situations that this herb treats so effectively and the amount of research and testing that has been done with it. Dr. Walker has seventeen pages of medical and alternative references in the back of the book. He is a medical journalist who has authored over 69 published books and over 1,800 clinical journal and magazine articles about holistic medicine, orthomolecular nutrition, and alternative methods of healing. olive leaf tea


Olive Leaf Tea – Mark Hanly MD references

REFERENCES of olive leaf

Aziz, NH, Farag, SE, Mousa, LA, Abo-Zaid, MA.
Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 1998;93:43-54.

Bisignano, G, Tomaino, A, Lo Cascio, R, Crisafi, G, Uccella, N, Saija, A.
On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:971-4.

Coni, E, Di Benedetto, R, Di Pasquale, M, Masella, R, Modesti, D, Mattei, R, Carlini, EA. Protective effect of oleuropein, an olive oil biophenol, on low density lipoprotein oxidizability in rabbits. Lipids 2000;35:45-54.

Ficarra, P, Ficarra, R, de Pasquale, A, Monforte, MT, Calabro, ML.
HPLC analysis of oleuropein and some flavonoids in leaf and bud of Olea europaea L. Farmaco 1991;46:803-15.

Saenz, MT, Garcia, MD, Ahumada, MC, Ruiz, V.
Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.

Farmaco 1998;53:448-9. Tassou, CC, Nychas, GJ, Board, RG.
Effect of phenolic compounds and oleuropein on the germination of Bacillus cereus T spores. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 1991;13:231-7.

Tranter, HS, Tassou, SC, Nychas, GJ.
The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus.

J Appl Bacteriol 1993;74:253-9. Visioli, F, Bellomo, G, Galli, C.
Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;247:60-4.


HYPERTENSION RX with Olive Leaf extract- reduces BP by 11 mm systolic


Phytotherapy Research Volume 22, Issue 9, pages 1239–1242, September 2008
Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins .  Tania Perrinjaquet-Moccetti

Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA®943, having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA®943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose and lipids were measured fortnightly.

Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the dose, with mean systolic differences of ≤6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and ≤13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of ≤5 mmHg.

After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 ± 5/77 ± 6 vs 135 ± 11/80 ± 7 mmHg) and the low-dose group (136 ± 7/77 ± 7 vs 133 ± 10/76 ± 7), but had significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 ± 10/80 ± 10 vs 126 ± 9/76 ± 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA®943 in humans.

Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.016. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril.

Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D, Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Verbruggen M. Source Nephrology & Hypertension Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jl. Diponegoro 71, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

Abstract A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension.

Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (EFLA(®)943) was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily in a flat-dose manner throughout the 8 weeks. Captopril was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily at start. After 2 weeks, if necessary, the dose of Captopril would be titrated to 25 mg twice daily, based on subject’s response to treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week-8 of treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints were SBP as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes at every time-point evaluation and lipid profile improvement. Evaluation of BP was performed every week for 8 weeks of treatment; while of lipid profile at a 4-week interval. Mean SBP at baseline was 149.3±5.58 mmHg in Olive group and 148.4±5.56 mmHg in Captopril group; and mean DBPs were 93.9±4.51 and 93.8±4.88 mmHg, respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a significant reduction of SBP as well as DBP from baseline; while such reductions were not significantly different between groups. Means of SBP reduction from baseline to the end of study were -11.5±8.5 and -13.7±7.6 mmHg in Olive and Captopril groups, respectively; and those of DBP were -4.8±5.5 and -6.4±5.2 mmHg, respectively. A significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed in Olive group, but not in Captopril group.

In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1 hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5-25 mg twice daily. excellent article summarizes the above two studies

Life Extension Magazine March 2012
Olive Leaf Safely Modulates Blood Pressure By Michael Downey

Antihypertensive effect of olive leaf extract animal model (mice)


Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52(11):797-802.
Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats.  Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Nassar NN, Okpanyi SN, Kreuter MH. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

A specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) has been tested for its blood pressure lowering activity in rats rendered hypertensive by daily oral doses of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 50 mg/kg) for at least 4 weeks.

Oral administration of the extract at different dose levels at the same time as L-NAME for a period of 8 weeks showed a dose dependent prophylactic effect against the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME, best effects being induced by a dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. In rats previously rendered hypertensive by L-NAME for 6 weeks and then treated with that dose of the extract for a further 6 weeks without discontinuation of L-NAME, normalisation of the blood pressure was observed. The findings confirm previous reports on the hypotensive effects of olive leaf. The special extract, EFLA 943, was shown to give consistent results with little individual variability. The antihypertensive effect of the extract may be related to a variety of factors involving reversal of vascular changes involved in the L-NAME induced hypertension.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):299-305.
Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves.  Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A. Department of Human Physiology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.

For the first time a biossay-directed study of triterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea from Greece, from wild African olive and from a cultivar of O. europaea grown in Cape Town was reported. The experiment was undertaken since our preliminary analyses showed that the African wild olive leave is rich in triterpenoids and contain only traces of the glycoside oleuropein, which is typical for the European olive leaves.

The isolate of the African wild olive leaves (AO) used in the experiments was found to contain 0.27% 1:1 mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, named oleuafricein. The isolate of Greek olive leaves (GO) was found to contain 0.71% oleanolic acid, and the Cape Town cultivar (CT) contained 2.47% oleanolic acid. No ursolic acid was found in either GO or CT. The antihypertensive, diuretic, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects of authentic oleanolic and ursolic acid and the three isolates (GO, AO and CT) were studied on Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin-resistant rat genetic model of hypertension.

All three isolates, in a dose 60 mg/kg b.w. for 6 weeks treatment, prevented the development of severe hypertension and atherosclerosis and improved the insulin resistance of the experimental animals.

GO, OA and CT isolates could provide an effective and cheap treatment of this particular, most common type of salt-sensitive hypertension in the African population.

Rat Model of genetic Hypertension

Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):115-21.

Cardiovascular, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids in experimental hypertension.  Somova LO, Nadar A, Rammanan P, Shode FO. Source Department of Human Physiology, University of Durban-Westville, Durban, South Africa.

Abstract Cardiovascular (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate), antihyperlipidemic (tryglycerides, total cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions), antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase–GPx, and superoxide dismutase–SOD), diuretic/saluretic and hypoglycemic activity of 98% pure oleanolic (OA) and ursolic (UA) acid were studied in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin resistant rat model of genetic hypertension. Both OA and UA displayed low toxicity, with LC50 0.10 and 0.95 mg/ml, respectively. Although both triterpenoids did not have direct hypotensive effect, after 6-week application in a daily dose 60 mg/kg b.w., i.p., they prevented the development of severe hypertension.

The antihypertensive effect was attributed to their potent diuretic-natriuretic-saluretic activity; direct cardiac effect (heart rate decrease by 34% and 32%, respectively); antihyperlipidemic (more than two times decrease of LDL and triglycerides); antioxidant (GPx increase by 12% and 10%, respectively; SOD increase by 12% and 22%, respectively), and hypoglycemic (blood glucose decrease by 20% and 50%, respectively) effects on the DSS rats. Except for the antihyperlipidemic effects, the other described above in vivo antihypertensive effects of OA and UA are reported for the first time and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation.


Jonny Bowden olive leaf and hypertension by jonny bowden


Olive Leaf Complex and Hypertension by Dr. Jonny Free e-book

28) Olive Leaf Book Unleash the Olive Leaf by Jony Bowden Barleans

Unleash the Olive Leaf by Jony Bowden – Barleans olive leaf complex ———————————-

Diabetes- Olive Leaf is an Anti-diabetic agent , More effective than DM drug

Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):347-50.
Antidiabetic effect of Olea europaea L. in normal and diabetic rats.

Eidi A, Eidi M, Darzi R. Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

The antidiabetic effect of an alcohol extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of the olive leaves extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body wt) for 14 days significantly decreased the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) while it increased the serum insulin in diabetic rats but not in normal rats (p < 0.05). A comparison was made between the action of olive leaves extract and glibenclamide (600 microg/kg), a known antidiabetic drug.

“The antidiabetic effect of the extract was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide.”


J Med Food. 2012 Jul;15(7):605-10. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.0243. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats. Wainstein J, Ganz T, Boaz M, Bar Dayan Y, Dolev E, Kerem Z, Madar Z. Diabetes Unit, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500 mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500 mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption.

In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption.

Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes.


Neuroprotective – olive leaf

Phytomedicine. 2011 Jan 15;18(2-3):170-5.

The neuroprotective effect of olive leaf extract is related to improved blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema in rat with experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Mohagheghi F, Bigdeli MR, Rasoulian B, Hashemi P, Pour MR. Source Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Tehran, Iran. Abstract

Recent studies suggest that olive extracts suppress inflammation and reduce stress oxidative injury. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four groups, each of 18 Wister rats, were studied. One (control) group received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral olive leaf extract (50, 75 and 100mg/kg/day respectively). After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60 min period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 24h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six animals drawn from each main group. Olive leaf extract reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses 50, 75, and 100mg/kg/day in comparison to the control group (P<0.001), and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 50mg/kg/day vs. 75 mg/kg/day vs. 100mg/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 209.79 ± 33.05 mm(3) vs. 164.36 ± 13.44 mm(3) vs. 123.06 ± 28.83 mm(3) vs. 94.71 ± 33.03 mm(3); brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere 82.33 ± 0.33% vs. 81.33 ± 0.66% vs. 80.75 ± 0.6% vs. 80.16 ± 0.47%, and blood-brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere 11.22 ± 2.19 μg/g vs. 9.56 ± 1.74 μg/g vs. 6.99 ± 1.48 μg/g vs. 5.94 ± 1.73 μg/g tissue (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for measures in doses 75 and 100mg/kg/day vs. controls respectively).

Oral administration of olive leaf extract


Olive leaf protect against genetic and oxidative damage from Permethrin – commonly used insecticide

Cytotechnology. 2012 Aug;64(4):459-64. doi: 10.1007/s10616-011-9424-z. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Olive leaf extract modulates permethrin induced genetic and oxidative damage in rats. Turkez H, Togar B, Polat E. Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and other domestic applications. The previous reports indicated that permethrin is a highly toxic synthetic pyrethroid pesticide to human and environmental health. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of olive leaf extract in modulating the permethrin induced genotoxic and oxidative damage in rats. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as control animals and received distilled water intraperitoneally (n = 5). Groups B and C rats received intraperitoneal injections of permethrin (60 mg kg(-1) b.w) and olive leaf extract (500 mg kg(-1) b.w), respectively. Group D rats received permethrin (60 mg kg(-1) b.w) plus olive leaf extract (500 mg kg(-1) b.w). Rats were orally administered their respective feed daily for 21 days. At the end of the experiment rats were anesthetized and serum and bone marrow cell samples were obtained. Genotoxic damage was assessed by micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status were also measured in serum samples to assess oxidative status. Treatment of Group B with permethrin resulted in genotoxic damage and increased total oxidant status levels. Permethrin treatment also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity level when compared to Group A rats. Group C rats showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in total antioxidant capacity level and no alterations in cytogenetic parameters. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with olive leaf extract significantly modulated the toxic effects of permethrin in Group D rats. It can be concluded that olive leaf extract has beneficial influences and could be able to antagonize permethrin toxicity. As a result, this investigation clearly revealed the protective role of olive leaf extract against the genetic and oxidative damage by permethrin in vivo for the first time.


olive leaf protects against gastric ulceration induced by ETOH


J Physiol Biochem. 2012 Dec;68(4):583-92. doi: 10.1007/s13105-012-0177-8. Epub 2012 May 13.

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Alirezaei M, Dezfoulian O, Neamati S, Rashidipour M, Tanideh N, Kheradmand A. Source Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad, Iran,

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages.


Olive Leaf lowers cholesterol , and TRiglycerides

Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Nov 25;176(2-3):88-98.

Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves.
Jemai H, Bouaziz M, Fki I, El Feki A, Sayadi S. Laboratoire des Bioprocédés, Pôle d’excellence régional AUF (PER-LBP), Centre de biotechnologie de Sfax (CBS), BP 1177, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.

Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet were tested. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, as indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hyperlipidemia resulting in the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts significantly lowered the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in liver, heart, kidneys and aorta decreased significantly after oral administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, these extracts increased the serum antioxidant potential and the hepatic CAT and SOD activities.

These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts might be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels as well as slowing the lipid peroxidation process and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity.




Angel with an olive branch.[1] Alternative title(s): Angel with an Olive Branch, Emblem of Divine Peace.[2] Date between 1475 and 1480 Medium Oil and gold on panel Dimensions Height: 16 cm (6.3 in). Width: 10 cm (3.9 in). Current location (Inventory)Louvre MuseumLink back to Institution infobox template


37) Patent by William Frederickson

(US Patent # 6,117,844)

PAtent- olive leaf extract = Method and composition for antiviral therapy   William R. Fredrickson

Welcome to the Benolea®  website. We are pleased to introduce you to Benolea® (EFLA®943), our patented olive leaf extract. This scientifically proven

ingredient has a positive influence on the cardiovascular system and supports a healthy heart.

Benolea® (EFLA®943) is the brandname of our olive leaf extract made from the finest leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).
The olive tree is one of the oldest cultivated plants known and has a strong symbolic character: it stands for peace and strength.
Olive leaves have traditionally been used in folk medicine for centuries.

The ancient Greeks knew the beneficial effects of the olive leaves and used them externally to treat wounds and internally to combat high blood pressure and

diabetes. Also in Yemen, people used to eat and chew olive leaves because of their special healthy benefits.

Based on a profound scientific knowledge Frutarom Switzerland Ltd. developed Benolea®, a high quality ingredient with the following key characteristics:

• Standardization on oleuropein and polyphenols content
• Proven stability according to ICH guidelines
• Patented EFLA®HyperPure process technology
• Olive leaf extract with clinical evidence
• Excellent safety profile

Thanks to its heart health promoting properties and its excellent tolerance, Benolea® is seen as a valuable ingredient with highly attractive positioning

opportunities in the growing market for heart health supporting products.


The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Olive Leaves against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  M. Motamed  Iran J Med Sci 2007; 32(4): 222-226.

Background: It was shown that olive leave extract has antifungal,
antibacterial and antiviral activities. The effects of
OLE on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) have not been systematically
investigated yet. The aim of this study was to examine
the in vitro effect of olive leaf hydroalcoholic extract
(OLHE) on HSV-1.

Methods: Virucidal effect and viral replication in Vero cell
line were studied in the presence of various concentrations of
OLHE applied at different time intervals using a standard
plaque assay method. The 50% cytotoxic concentration
(CC50), 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), and therapeutic
index of OLHE were determined.

Results: OLHE showed virucidal effect on HSV-1 in concentrations
>1 mg/mL. The CC50 of OLHE for Vero cells and IC50
were 1.75 and 0.66 mg/mL, respectively. When applied to cell
culture infected with the HSV-1, one hour earlier, OLHE
showed no antiviral activities. When applied to the cells followed
by the virus infection one hour later, or to the media
containing the virus and the combination was added to cell
culture one hour later, OLHE showed anti-HSV-1 activities at
concentrations >1 mg/mL.

Conclusion: OLHE has anti-HSV-1 activity likely due to the
prevention of virus entry into the cells.

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314

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